Chicago – Wikipedia

Largest city in Illinois, United States

City in Illinois, United States
Chicago ( shih-KAH-goh, locally besides shih-KAW-goh [ 5 ] ), officially the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Illinois, and the third-most populous city in the United States, following New York City and Los Angeles. With a population of 2,746,388 in the 2020 census, [ 6 ] it is besides the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the fifth most populous city in North America. Chicago is the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the U.S., while a small helping of the city ‘s O’Hare International Airport besides extends into DuPage County. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area, defined as either the U.S. Census Bureau ‘s metropolitan statistical area ( 9.6 million people ) or the aggregate statistical area ( about 10 million residents ), frequently called Chicagoland. It is one of the 40 largest urban areas in the world.

Located on the shores of fresh water Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed. It grew quickly in the mid-19th hundred ; [ 7 ] by 1860, Chicago was the youngest U.S. city to exceed a population of 100,000. [ 8 ] even after the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroy respective square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, [ 9 ] Chicago ‘s population grew to 503,000 by 1880 — and then doubled to more than a million within the decade. [ 8 ] The construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the follow decades, and by 1900, less than 30 years after the great fire, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the worldly concern. [ 10 ] Chicago made celebrated contributions to urban plan and zoning standards, including new construction styles ( including the Chicago School of architecture ), the development of the City Beautiful Movement, and the steel-framed skyscraper. [ 11 ] [ 12 ] Chicago is an external hub for finance, culture, department of commerce, industry, education, technology, telecommunications, and transportation system. It is the site of the creation of the first gear standardize futures contracts, issued by the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is region of the largest and most divers derivatives grocery store in the world, generating 20 % of all volume in commodities and fiscal futures alone. [ 13 ] O’Hare International Airport is routinely ranked among the world ‘s top six busiest airports according to tracked data by the Airports Council International. [ 14 ] The area besides has the largest issue of federal highways and is the nation ‘s railroad track hub. [ 15 ] The Chicago sphere has one of the highest crude domestic products ( GDP ) in the populace, generating $ 689 billion in 2018. [ 16 ] The economy of Chicago is diverse, with no single industry employing more than 14 % of the work force. [ 17 ] It is home to several Fortune 500 companies, including Abbott Laboratories, AbbVie, Allstate, Archer Daniels Midland, Boeing, Caterpillar, Conagra Brands, Exelon, JLL, Kraft Heinz, McDonald ‘s, Mondelez International, Motorola Solutions, Sears, United Airlines Holdings, US Foods, and Walgreens. [ 18 ] Chicago ‘s 58 million tourist visitors in 2018 set a new record, [ 19 ] [ 20 ] and Chicago has been voted the best bombastic city in the U.S. for four years in a row by Condé Nast Traveler. [ 21 ] The city was ranked inaugural in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global urban quality of life review of 15,000 people in 32 cities, [ 22 ] [ 23 ] [ 24 ] [ 25 ] [ 26 ] and was rated second-most beautiful city in the earth ( after Prague ) in 2021. [ 27 ] Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis ( Sears ) Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago is besides home to the Barack Obama Presidential Center being built in Hyde Park on the city ‘s South Side. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] Chicago ‘s culture includes the ocular arts, literature, film, field, comedy ( specially improvisational comedy ), food, and music, particularly jazz, blues, person, rap, gospel, [ 30 ] and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area ‘s many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, and the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as “ highest inquiry ” doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major master leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams .

etymology and nicknames

The appoint Chicago is derived from a french render of the autochthonal Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a raving mad relative of the onion ; it is known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more normally as “ ramps. ” The first known reference to the site of the stream city of Chicago as “ Checagou “ was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. [ 31 ] Henri Joutel, in his diary of 1688, noted that the eponymous crazy “ garlic ” grew abundantly in the area. [ 32 ] According to his diary of late September 1687 :

… when we arrived at the said place called “ Chicagou ” which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. [ 32 ]

The city has had respective nicknames throughout its history, such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, and City of the Big Shoulders. [ 33 ]

history

Beginnings

In the mid-18th hundred, the area was inhabited by the Potawatomi, a native american tribe who had succeeded the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples in this region. [ 34 ] The first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was trader Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of african descent, possibly born in the french colony of Saint-Domingue ( Haiti ), and established the colonization in the 1780s. He is normally known as the “ Founder of Chicago ”. [ 37 ] In 1795, following the victory of the modern United States in the Northwest Indian War, an area that was to be separate of Chicago was turned over to the US for a military military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn. This was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn by the british and their native allies. It was later rebuilt. After the War of 1812, the Ottawa, Ojibwe, and Potawatomi tribes ceded extra land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833 and sent west of the Mississippi River during indian Removal. [ 41 ]

nineteenth century

On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. [ 41 ] Within seven years it grew to more than 6,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as Receiver of Public Monies. The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, [ 42 ] and for respective decades was the world ‘s fastest-growing city. [ 43 ] As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important fare hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicago ‘s beginning railroad track, Galena and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois and Michigan Canal opened in 1848. The duct allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad. manufacture and retail and finance sectors became prevailing, influencing the american english economy. [ 49 ] The Chicago Board of Trade ( established 1848 ) listed the first-ever standardized “ exchange-traded ” forward contracts, which were called futures contracts. [ 50 ]
In the 1850s, Chicago gained national political bulge as the home of Senator Stephen Douglas, the champion of the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the “ democratic sovereignty ” approach to the publish of the spread of slavery. [ 51 ] These issues besides helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stagecoach. Lincoln was nominated in Chicago for US president at the 1860 Republican National Convention, which was held in Chicago in a temp build called the Wigwam. He defeated Douglas in the general election, and this set the stage for the American Civil War. To accommodate rapid population growth and demand for better sanitation, the city improved its infrastructure. In February 1856, Chicago ‘s Common Council approved Chesbrough ‘s plan to build the United States ‘ inaugural comprehensive sewage system. [ 52 ] The project raised much of central Chicago to a newfangled class with the habit of hydraulic jackscrews for raising buildings. [ 53 ] While elevating Chicago, and at first improving the city ‘s health, the untreated sewage and industrial waste now flowed into the Chicago River, and subsequently into Lake Michigan, polluting the city ‘s primary fresh water informant. The city responded by tunneling two miles ( 3.2 kilometer ) out into Lake Michigan to newly built body of water crib. In 1900, the problem of sewage contamination was largely resolved when the city completed a major technology feat. It reversed the flow of the Chicago River so that the water flowed away from Lake Michigan quite than into it. This project began with the construction and improvement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and was completed with the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal that connects to the Illinois River, which flows into the Mississippi River. In 1871, the Great Chicago Fire destroyed an sphere about 4 miles ( 6.4 km ) long and 1-mile ( 1.6 kilometer ) across-the-board, a large incision of the city at the clock. much of the city, including railroads and stockyards, survived integral, and from the ruins of the previous wooden structures arose more modern constructions of steel and rock. These set a precedent for cosmopolitan construction. [ 61 ] During its rebuild period, Chicago constructed the world ‘s beginning skyscraper in 1885, using steel-skeleton construction. [ 63 ] The city grew significantly in size and population by incorporating many neighboring townships between 1851 and 1920, with the largest annexation happening in 1889, with five townships joining the city, including the Hyde Park Township, which nowadays comprises most of the South Side of Chicago and the army for the liberation of rwanda southeast of Chicago, and the Jefferson Township, which nowadays makes up most of Chicago ‘s Northwest Side. [ 65 ] The desire to join the city was driven by municipal services that the city could provide its residents .
Chicago ‘s flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of newfangled immigrants from Europe and migrants from the Eastern United States. Of the total population in 1900, more than 77 % were either foreign-born or born in the United States of foreign parenthood. Germans, Irish, Poles, Swedes and Czechs made up about two-thirds of the foreign-born population ( by 1900, whites were 98.1 % of the city ‘s population ). [ 66 ] [ 67 ] labor conflicts followed the industrial boom and the rapid expansion of the department of labor pool, including the Haymarket affair on May 4, 1886, and in 1894 the Pullman Strike. Anarchist and socialistic groups played big roles in creating identical bombastic and highly organized labor actions. Concern for sociable problems among Chicago ‘s immigrant inadequate led Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to found Hull House in 1889. [ 68 ] Programs that were developed there became a exemplary for the fresh field of social work. [ 69 ] During the 1870s and 1880s, Chicago attained national stature as the leader in the motion to improve public health. City, and late, state laws that upgraded standards for the medical profession and fight urban epidemics of cholera, smallpox, and chicken fever were both passed and enforced. These laws became templates for populace health reform in other cities and states. [ 70 ] The city established many bombastic, well-landscaped municipal parks, which besides included public sanitation facilities. The chief advocate for improving populace health in Chicago was Dr. John H. Rauch, M.D. Rauch established a design for Chicago ‘s ballpark system in 1866. He created Lincoln Park by closing a cemetery filled with shallow graves, and in 1867, in reception to an outbreak of cholera he helped establish a new Chicago Board of Health. Ten years late, he became the secretary and then the president of the united states of the first base Illinois State Board of Health, which carried out most of its activities in Chicago. [ 71 ] In the 1800s, Chicago became the nation ‘s railroad track hub, and by 1910 over 20 railroads operated passenger service out of six different downtown terminals. [ 73 ] In 1883, Chicago ‘s railway managers needed a general time convention, so they developed the standardize organization of north american english time zones. [ 74 ] This organization for telling time spread throughout the continent. In 1893, Chicago hosted the World ‘s columbian exhibition on former marsh at the present location of Jackson Park. The Exposition drew 27.5 million visitors, and is considered the most influential world ‘s average in history. [ 75 ] The University of Chicago, once at another location, moved to the same South Side localization in 1892. The term “ halfway ” for a fair or circus referred in the first place to the Midway Plaisance, a undress of park state that even runs through the University of Chicago campus and connects the Washington and Jackson Parks. [ 77 ] [ 78 ]

20th and 21st centuries

Men outside a soup kitchen during the Great Depression ( 1931 )

1900 to 1939

aeriform gesture film photography of Chicago in 1914 as filmed by A. Roy Knabenshue During World War I and the 1920s there was a major expansion in diligence. The handiness of jobs attracted african Americans from the Southern United States. between 1910 and 1930, the african american english population of Chicago increased dramatically, from 44,103 to 233,903. [ 79 ] This Great Migration had an huge cultural impact, called the Chicago Black Renaissance, part of the New Negro Movement, in art, literature, and music. [ 80 ] Continuing racial tensions and ferocity, such as the Chicago Race Riot of 1919, besides occurred. [ 81 ] The ratification of the 18th amendment to the Constitution in 1919 made the production and sale ( including exporting ) of alcoholic beverages illegal in the United States. This usher in the begin of what is known as the Gangster Era, a time that roughly spans from 1919 until 1933 when Prohibition was repealed. The 1920s see gangsters, including Al Capone, Dion O’Banion, Bugs Moran and Tony Accardo conflict law enforcement and each early on the streets of Chicago during the Prohibition era. [ 82 ] Chicago was the location of the ill-famed St. Valentine ‘s Day Massacre in 1929, when Al Capone sent men to gun down members of a rival gang, North Side, led by Bugs Moran. [ 83 ] Chicago was the first american city to have a homosexual-rights organization. The arrangement, formed in 1924, was called the Society for Human Rights. It produced the inaugural american english publication for homosexuals, Friendship and Freedom. Police and political imperativeness caused the constitution to disband. [ 84 ] The Great Depression brought unprecedented hurt to Chicago, in no humble part due to the city ‘s heavy reliance on intemperate industry. notably, industrial areas on the south english and neighborhoods lining both branches of the Chicago River were devastated ; by 1933 over 50 % of industrial jobs in the city had been lost, and unemployment rates amongst blacks and Mexicans in the city were over 40 %. The republican political machine in Chicago was absolutely destroyed by the economic crisis, and every mayor since 1931 has been a Democrat. From 1928 to 1933, the city witnessed a tax rebellion, and the city was unable to meet payroll or provide relief efforts. The fiscal crisis was resolved by 1933, and at the lapp time, federal easing fund began to flow into Chicago. [ 85 ] Chicago was besides a hotbed of department of labor activism, with Unemployed Councils contributing heavily in the early depression to create solidarity for the poor and need stand-in, these organizations were created by socialist and communist groups. By 1935 the Workers Alliance of America begun organizing the poor, workers, the unemployed. In the jump of 1937 Republic Steel Works witnessed the Memorial Day slaughter of 1937 in the neighborhood of East Side. In 1933, Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was fatally wounded in Miami, Florida, during a fail character assassination attack on President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1933 and 1934, the city celebrated its centennial by hosting the Century of Progress International Exposition World ‘s Fair. [ 86 ] The composition of the bazaar was technical invention over the hundred since Chicago ‘s initiation. [ 87 ]

1940 to 1979

Boy from Chicago, 1941 During World War II, the city of Chicago alone produced more steel than the United Kingdom every year from 1939 – 1945, and more than Nazi Germany from 1943 – 1945. [ citation needed ] The Great Migration, which had been on hesitate due to the Depression, resumed at an even faster pace in the second wave, as hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South arrived in the city to work in the steel mills, railroads, and transportation yards. [ 88 ] On December 2, 1942, physicist Enrico Fermi conducted the world ‘s first base controlled nuclear reaction at the University of Chicago as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. This led to the creation of the atomic turkey by the United States, which it used in World War II in 1945. [ 89 ] Mayor Richard J. Daley, a Democrat, was elected in 1955, in the earned run average of machine politics. In 1956, the city conducted its last major expansion when it annexed the kingdom under O’Hare airport, including a small helping of DuPage County. [ citation needed ] By the 1960s, white residents in several neighborhoods left the city for the suburban areas – in many american cities, a process known as white flight – as Blacks continued to move beyond the Black Belt. [ citation needed ] While base loanword discriminatory redlining against blacks continued, the real estate of the realm industry practiced what became known as blockbusting, wholly changing the racial composition of whole neighborhoods. [ 90 ] Structural changes in diligence, such as globalization and job outsource, caused heavy job losses for lower-skilled workers. At its acme during the 1960s, some 250,000 workers were employed in the sword diligence in Chicago, but the sword crisis of the 1970s and 1980s reduced this total to just 28,000 in 2015. In 1966, Martin Luther King Jr. and Albert Raby led the Chicago Freedom Movement, which culminated in agreements between Mayor Richard J. Daley and the bowel movement leaders. [ 91 ] Two years later, the city hosted the disruptive 1968 democratic National Convention, which featured physical confrontations both inside and outside the convention hall, with anti-war protesters, journalists and bystanders being beaten by patrol. [ 92 ] Major construction projects, including the Sears Tower ( now known as the Willis Tower, which in 1974 became the world ‘s tallest build ), University of Illinois at Chicago, McCormick Place, and O’Hare International Airport, were undertaken during Richard J. Daley ‘s tenure. [ 93 ] In 1979, Jane Byrne, the city ‘s first base female mayor, was elected. She was luminary for temporarily moving into the crime-ridden Cabrini-Green house project and for leading Chicago ‘s educate system out of a fiscal crisis. [ 94 ]

1980 to present

In 1983, Harold Washington became the first black mayor of Chicago. Washington ‘s first term in office directed attention to inadequate and previously neglected minority neighborhoods. He was re‑elected in 1987 but died of a affection attack soon after. [ 95 ] Washington was succeeded by 6th ward Alderman Eugene Sawyer, who was elected by the Chicago City Council and served until a special election. Richard M. Daley, son of Richard J. Daley, was elected in 1989. His accomplishments included improvements to parks and creating incentives for sustainable development, a well as close Meigs Field in the in-between of the night and destroying the runways. After successfully running for re-election five times, and becoming Chicago ‘s longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley declined to run for a seventh term. [ 96 ] [ 97 ] In 1992, a construction accident near the Kinzie Street Bridge produced a breach connecting the Chicago River to a burrow below, which was share of an abandoned freight burrow system extending throughout the downtown Loop district. The tunnels filled with 250 million US gallons ( 1,000,000 m3 ) of body of water, affecting buildings throughout the district and forcing a closure of electric power. [ 98 ] The area was shut down for three days and some buildings did not reopen for weeks ; losses were estimated at $ 1.95 billion. [ 98 ] On February 23, 2011, former Illinois Congressman and White House Chief of Staff Rahm Emanuel won the mayoral election. [ 99 ] Emanuel was sworn in a mayor on May 16, 2011, and won re-election in 2015. [ 100 ] Lori Lightfoot, the city ‘s first base african American charwoman mayor and its first openly LGBTQ Mayor, was elected to succeed Emanuel as mayor in 2019. [ 101 ] All three city-wide elective course offices were held by women for the foremost time in Chicago history : in addition to Lightfoot, the City Clerk was Anna Valencia and City Treasurer, Melissa Conyears-Ervin. [ 102 ]

geography

Chicago horizon at sunset, from North Avenue Beach looking south

topography

Downtown and the North Side with beaches lining the waterfront Chicago is located in northeastern Illinois on the southwestern shores of fresh water Lake Michigan. It is the principal city in the Chicago metropolitan area, situated in both the Midwestern United States and the Great Lakes region. The city rests on a continental separate at the web site of the Chicago Portage, connecting the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes watersheds. In addition to it lying beside Lake Michigan, two rivers—the Chicago River in downtown and the Calumet River in the industrial far South Side—flow either entirely or partially through the city. Chicago ‘s history and economy are closely tied to its proximity to Lake Michigan. While the Chicago River historically handled much of the region ‘s waterborne cargo, nowadays ‘s huge lake freighters use the city ‘s Lake Calumet Harbor on the South Side. The lake besides provides another positive effect : tone down Chicago ‘s climate, making waterfront neighborhoods slightly warmer in winter and cool in summer. [ 105 ]
A satellite image of Chicago When Chicago was founded in 1837, most of the early construct was around the talk of the Chicago River, as can be seen on a map of the city ‘s original 58 blocks. [ 106 ] The overall grade of the city ‘s central, built-up areas is relatively coherent with the natural two-dimensionality of its overall natural geography, broadly exhibiting merely slender differentiation differently. The average land acme is 579 foot ( 176.5 megabyte ) above sea level. While measurements vary slightly, [ 107 ] the lowest points are along the lake prop up at 578 foot ( 176.2 molarity ), while the highest point, at 672 foot ( 205 megabyte ), is the morainal ridge of Blue Island in the city ‘s far south side. [ 108 ] While the Chicago Loop is the central business district, Chicago is besides a city of neighborhoods. Lake Shore Drive runs adjacent to a large dowry of Chicago ‘s waterfront. Some of the parks along the waterfront include Lincoln Park, Grant Park, Burnham Park, and Jackson Park. There are 24 public beaches across 26 miles ( 42 kilometer ) of the waterfront. [ 109 ] Landfill extends into portions of the lake providing distance for Navy Pier, Northerly Island, the Museum Campus, and bombastic portions of the McCormick Place Convention Center. Most of the city ‘s high-rise commercial and residential buildings are close to the waterfront. An cozy name for the entire Chicago metropolitan sphere is “ Chicagoland ”, which by and large means the city and all its suburb. The Chicago Tribune, which coined the condition, includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, and eight nearby Illinois counties : Lake, McHenry, DuPage, Kane, Kendall, Grundy, Will and Kankakee, and three counties in Indiana : Lake, Porter and LaPorte. [ 110 ] The Illinois Department of Tourism defines Chicagoland as Cook County without the city of Chicago, and alone Lake, DuPage, Kane, and Will counties. [ 111 ] The Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook and DuPage, Kane, Lake, McHenry, and Will counties. [ 112 ]

Communities

major sections of the city include the cardinal occupation district, called The Loop, and the North, South, and West Sides. [ 113 ] The three sides of the city are represented on the Flag of Chicago by three horizontal white stripes. [ 114 ] The North Side is the most-densely-populated residential section of the city, and many high-rises are located on this side of the city along the lakefront. [ 115 ] The South Side is the largest part of the city, encompassing roughly 60 % of the city ‘s land area. The South Side contains most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago. [ 116 ] In the late-1920s, sociologists at the University of Chicago subdivided the city into 77 distinct community areas, which can far be subdivided into over 200 colloquially defined neighborhoods. [ 117 ] [ 118 ]

Streetscape

Chicago ‘s streets were laid out in a street power system that grew from the city ‘s master townsite diagram, which was bounded by Lake Michigan on the east, North Avenue on the north, Wood Street on the west, and 22nd Street on the south. [ 119 ] Streets following the Public Land Survey System section lines subsequently became arterial streets in outlying sections. As new additions to the city were platted, city ordination required them to be laid out with eight streets to the mile in one management and sixteen in the other steering ( about one street per 200 meters in one focus and one street per 100 meters in the early direction ). The grid ‘s regularity provided an effective means of developing new real estate place. A break up of diagonal streets, many of them primitively native American trails, besides cross the city ( Elston, Milwaukee, Ogden, Lincoln, and so forth ). many extra aslant streets were recommended in the plan of Chicago, but only the extension of Ogden Avenue was ever constructed. In 2016, Chicago was ranked the sixth-most walkable large city in the United States. [ 121 ] Many of the city ‘s residential streets have a wide-eyed patch of denounce or trees between the street and the sidewalk itself. This helps to keep pedestrians on the sidewalk foster away from the street dealings. Chicago ‘s western Avenue is the longest continuous urban street in the world. [ 122 ] early celebrated streets include Michigan Avenue, State Street, Oak, Rush, Clark Street, and Belmont Avenue. The City Beautiful motion inspired Chicago ‘s boulevards and parkways. [ 123 ]

computer architecture

Chicago Building (1904–05) is a prime example of the The ( 1904–05 ) is a prime exemplar of the Chicago School, displaying both variations of the Chicago window. The destruction caused by the Great Chicago Fire led to the largest building boom in the history of the state. In 1885, the beginning steel-framed high-rise build, the Home Insurance Building, rose in the city as Chicago ushered in the skyscraper earned run average, which would then be followed by many other cities around the world. [ 124 ] Today, Chicago ‘s horizon is among the populace ‘s tall and dense. [ 125 ] Some of the United States ‘ tallest towers are located in Chicago ; Willis Tower ( once Sears Tower ) is the second improbable building in the Western Hemisphere after One World Trade Center, and Trump International Hotel and Tower is the third tall in the nation. [ 126 ] The Loop ‘s historic buildings include the Chicago Board of Trade Building, the Fine Arts Building, 35 East Wacker, and the Chicago Building, 860-880 Lake Shore Drive Apartments by Mies van five hundred Rohe. Many early architects have left their stamp on the Chicago horizon such as Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan, Charles B. Atwood, John Root, and Helmut Jahn. The Merchandise Mart, once beginning on the list of largest buildings in the universe, presently listed as 44th-largest ( as of 9 September 2013 ), had its own slide fastener code until 2008, and stands near the junction of the North and South branches of the Chicago River. [ 129 ] Presently, the four tallest buildings in the city are Willis Tower ( once the Sears Tower, besides a build with its own travel rapidly code ), Trump International Hotel and Tower, the Aon Center ( previously the Standard Oil Building ), and the John Hancock Center. Industrial districts, such as some areas on the South Side, the areas along the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, and the Northwest Indiana sphere are clustered. Chicago gave its name to the Chicago School and was home to the Prairie School, two movements in computer architecture. [ 131 ] Multiple kinds and scales of houses, townhouses, condominiums, and apartment buildings can be found throughout Chicago. Large swaths of the city ‘s residential areas away from the lake are characterized by brick bungalows built from the early on twentieth hundred through the end of World War II. Chicago is besides a outstanding center of the polish Cathedral manner of church architecture. The Chicago suburb of Oak Park was home to celebrated architect Frank Lloyd Wright, who had designed The Robie House located near the University of Chicago. [ 132 ] [ 133 ] A popular tourist activity is to take an architecture boat go along the Chicago River. [ 134 ]

Monuments and public art

Chicago is celebrated for its outdoor public art with donors establishing fund for such art as far back as Benjamin Ferguson ‘s 1905 believe. [ 135 ] A number of Chicago ‘s public art works are by modern figurative artists. Among these are Chagall ‘s Four Seasons ; the Chicago Picasso ; Miro ‘s Chicago ; Calder ‘s Flamingo ; Oldenburg ‘s Batcolumn ; Moore ‘s Large Interior Form, 1953-54, Man Enters the Cosmos and Nuclear Energy ; Dubuffet ‘s monument with Standing Beast, Abakanowicz ‘s Agora ; and, Anish Kapoor ‘s Cloud Gate which has become an icon of the city. Some events which shaped the city ‘s history have besides been memorialized by artwork works, including the Great Northern Migration ( Saar ) and the centennial of statehood for Illinois. ultimately, two fountains near the Loop besides serve as massive works of artwork : Plensa ‘s Crown Fountain ampere well as Burnham and Bennett ‘s Buckingham Fountain. [ citation needed ] More representational and portrait statuary includes a number of works by Lorado Taft ( Fountain of Time, The Crusader, Eternal Silence, and the Heald Square Monument completed by Crunelle ), French ‘s Statue of the Republic, Edward Kemys ‘s Lions, Saint-Gaudens ‘s Abraham Lincoln : The Man ( a.k.a. Standing Lincoln ) and Abraham Lincoln : The Head of State ( a.k.a. Seated Lincoln ), Brioschi ‘s Christopher Columbus, Meštrović ‘s The Bowman and The Spearman, Dallin ‘s Signal of Peace, Fairbanks ‘s The Chicago Lincoln, Boyle ‘s The Alarm, Polasek ‘s memorial to Masaryk, memorials along Solidarity Promenade to Kościuszko, Havliček and Copernicus by Chodzinski, Strachovský, and Thorvaldsen, a memorial to General Logan by Saint-Gaudens, and Kearney ‘s Moose ( W-02-03 ). A count of statues besides honor holocene local heroes such as Michael Jordan ( by Amrany and Rotblatt-Amrany ), Stan Mikita, and Bobby Hull outside of the United Center ; Harry Caray ( by Amrany and Cella ) outside Wrigley airfield, Jack Brickhouse ( by McKenna ) next to the WGN studios, [ citation needed ] and Irv Kupcinet at the Wabash Avenue Bridge. [ 136 ] There are preliminary plans to erect a 1:1‑scale replica of Wacław Szymanowski ‘s Art Nouveau statue of Frédéric Chopin found in Warsaw ‘s Royal Baths along Chicago ‘s lakefront in addition to a different sculpture commemorating the artist in Chopin Park for the two-hundredth anniversary of Frédéric Chopin ‘s birth. [ 137 ]

climate

Chicago, Illinois
Climate chart (explanation)
j farad megabyte A molarity j j A mho o north d

2.1

32

18

1.9

36

22

2.7

47

31

3.6

59

42

4.1

70

52

4.1

80

62

4

85

68

4

83

66

3.3

75

58

3.2

63

46

3.4

49

35

2.6

35

23

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches

The city lies within the typical hot-summer humid continental climate ( Köppen : Dfa ), and experiences four discrete seasons. [ 138 ] [ 139 ] [ 140 ] Summers are hot and humid, with frequent heat waves. The July daily average temperature is 75.9 °F ( 24.4 °C ), with good afternoon temperatures peaking at 85.0 °F ( 29.4 °C ). In a normal summer, temperatures reach at least 90 °F ( 32 °C ) on ampere many as 23 days, with lakefront locations staying cool when winds blow off the lake. Winters are relatively cold and snow-clad, although the city typically sees less snow and rain in winter than that experienced in the eastern Great Lakes region. still, blizzards do happen, such as the one in 2011. [ 141 ] There are many sunny but cold days in winter. The normal winter senior high school from December through March is about 36 °F ( 2 °C ), with January and February being the coldest months ; a pivotal whirl in January 2019 closely broke the city ‘s cold record of −27 °F ( −33 °C ), which was set on January 20, 1985. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] [ 144 ] Spring and fall are balmy, short seasons, typically with low humidity. Dew point temperatures in the summer compass from an average of 55.7 °F ( 13.2 °C ) in June to 61.7 °F ( 16.5 °C ) in July, [ 145 ] but can reach about 80 °F ( 27 °C ), such as during the July 2019 heat beckon. The city lies within USDA plant boldness zone 6a, transitioning to 5b in the suburb. [ 146 ] According to the National Weather Service, Chicago ‘s highest official temperature read of 105 °F ( 41 °C ) was recorded on July 24, 1934, [ 147 ] although Midway Airport reached 109 °F ( 43 °C ) one day prior and recorded a heat index of 125 °F ( 52 °C ) during the 1995 heatwave. [ 148 ] The lowest official temperature of −27 °F ( −33 °C ) was recorded on January 20, 1985, at O’Hare Airport. [ 145 ] [ 148 ] Most of the city ‘s rain is brought by thunderstorms, averaging 38 a year. The area is besides prone to severe thunderstorms during the spring and summer which can produce big hail, damaging winds, and occasionally tornadoes. [ 149 ] Like other major cities, Chicago experiences an urban heating system island, making the city and its suburbs balmy than surrounding rural areas, particularly at night and in winter. The proximity to Lake Michigan tends to keep the Chicago lakefront reasonably cool in summer and less viciously cold in winter than inland parts of the city and suburbs away from the lake. [ 150 ] Northeast winds from winter cyclones departing south of the region sometimes bring the city lake-effect snow. [ 151 ]

Climate data for Chicago (Midway Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1928–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
75
(24)
86
(30)
92
(33)
102
(39)
107
(42)
109
(43)
104
(40)
102
(39)
94
(34)
81
(27)
72
(22)
109
(43)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 53
(12)
58
(14)
72
(22)
82
(28)
89
(32)
94
(34)
96
(36)
94
(34)
91
(33)
83
(28)
68
(20)
58
(14)
97
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 32.8
(0.4)
36.8
(2.7)
47.9
(8.8)
60.0
(15.6)
71.5
(21.9)
81.2
(27.3)
85.2
(29.6)
83.1
(28.4)
76.5
(24.7)
63.7
(17.6)
49.6
(9.8)
37.7
(3.2)
60.5
(15.8)
Daily mean °F (°C) 26.2
(−3.2)
29.9
(−1.2)
39.9
(4.4)
50.9
(10.5)
61.9
(16.6)
71.9
(22.2)
76.7
(24.8)
75.0
(23.9)
67.8
(19.9)
55.3
(12.9)
42.4
(5.8)
31.5
(−0.3)
52.4
(11.3)
Average low °F (°C) 19.5
(−6.9)
22.9
(−5.1)
32.0
(0.0)
41.7
(5.4)
52.4
(11.3)
62.7
(17.1)
68.1
(20.1)
66.9
(19.4)
59.2
(15.1)
46.8
(8.2)
35.2
(1.8)
25.3
(−3.7)
44.4
(6.9)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −3
(−19)
3
(−16)
14
(−10)
28
(−2)
39
(4)
49
(9)
59
(15)
58
(14)
45
(7)
32
(0)
20
(−7)
5
(−15)
−7
(−22)
Record low °F (°C) −25
(−32)
−20
(−29)
−7
(−22)
10
(−12)
28
(−2)
35
(2)
46
(8)
43
(6)
29
(−2)
20
(−7)
−3
(−19)
−20
(−29)
−25
(−32)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.30
(58)
2.12
(54)
2.66
(68)
4.15
(105)
4.75
(121)
4.53
(115)
4.02
(102)
4.10
(104)
3.33
(85)
3.86
(98)
2.73
(69)
2.33
(59)
40.88
(1,038)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 12.5
(32)
10.1
(26)
5.7
(14)
1.0
(2.5)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.25)
1.5
(3.8)
7.9
(20)
38.8
(99)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 11.5 9.4 11.1 12.0 12.4 11.1 10.0 9.3 8.4 10.8 10.2 10.8 127.0
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.1 in ) 8.9 6.4 3.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.6 6.3 28.2
Average ultraviolet index 1 2 4 6 7 9 9 8 6 4 2 1 5
Source 1: NOAA[152][145][148], WRCC[153]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV)[154]
Climate data for Chicago (O’Hare Int’l Airport), 1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1871–present[b]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 67
(19)
75
(24)
88
(31)
91
(33)
98
(37)
104
(40)
105
(41)
102
(39)
101
(38)
94
(34)
81
(27)
71
(22)
105
(41)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 52
(11)
57
(14)
71
(22)
81
(27)
88
(31)
93
(34)
95
(35)
93
(34)
90
(32)
82
(28)
67
(19)
56
(13)
96
(36)
Average high °F (°C) 31.6
(−0.2)
35.7
(2.1)
47.0
(8.3)
59.0
(15.0)
70.5
(21.4)
80.4
(26.9)
84.5
(29.2)
82.5
(28.1)
75.5
(24.2)
62.7
(17.1)
48.4
(9.1)
36.6
(2.6)
59.5
(15.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 25.2
(−3.8)
28.8
(−1.8)
39.0
(3.9)
49.7
(9.8)
60.6
(15.9)
70.6
(21.4)
75.4
(24.1)
73.8
(23.2)
66.3
(19.1)
54.0
(12.2)
41.3
(5.2)
30.5
(−0.8)
51.3
(10.7)
Average low °F (°C) 18.8
(−7.3)
21.8
(−5.7)
31.0
(−0.6)
40.3
(4.6)
50.6
(10.3)
60.8
(16.0)
66.4
(19.1)
65.1
(18.4)
57.1
(13.9)
45.4
(7.4)
34.1
(1.2)
24.4
(−4.2)
43.0
(6.1)
Mean minimum °F (°C) −4
(−20)
1
(−17)
12
(−11)
26
(−3)
37
(3)
46
(8)
54
(12)
54
(12)
42
(6)
30
(−1)
17
(−8)
3
(−16)
−8
(−22)
Record low °F (°C) −27
(−33)
−21
(−29)
−12
(−24)
7
(−14)
27
(−3)
35
(2)
45
(7)
42
(6)
29
(−2)
14
(−10)
−2
(−19)
−25
(−32)
−27
(−33)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.99
(51)
1.97
(50)
2.45
(62)
3.75
(95)
4.49
(114)
4.10
(104)
3.71
(94)
4.25
(108)
3.19
(81)
3.43
(87)
2.42
(61)
2.11
(54)
37.86
(962)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 11.3
(29)
10.7
(27)
5.5
(14)
1.3
(3.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.2
(0.51)
1.8
(4.6)
7.6
(19)
38.4
(98)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 11.0 9.4 10.8 12.3 12.5 11.1 9.7 9.4 8.5 10.5 10.0 10.6 125.8
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.1 in ) 8.5 6.4 4.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.6 6.1 27.8
Average relative humidity (%) 72.2 71.6 69.7 64.9 64.1 65.6 68.5 70.7 71.1 68.6 72.5 75.5 69.6
Average dew point °F (°C) 13.6
(−10.2)
17.6
(−8.0)
27.1
(−2.7)
35.8
(2.1)
45.7
(7.6)
55.8
(13.2)
61.7
(16.5)
61.0
(16.1)
53.8
(12.1)
41.7
(5.4)
31.6
(−0.2)
20.1
(−6.6)
38.8
(3.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 135.8 136.2 187.0 215.3 281.9 311.4 318.4 283.0 226.6 193.2 113.3 106.3 2,508.4
Percent possible sunshine 46 46 51 54 62 68 69 66 60 56 38 37 56
Source: NOAA (relative humidity, dew point and sun 1961–1990)[145][157][158]
Sunshine data for Chicago
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.2
Source: Weather Atlas [159]

Time zone

As in the rest of the state of Illinois, Chicago forms depart of the Central Time Zone. The bound with the easterly Time Zone is located a shortstop distance to the east, used in Michigan and certain parts of Indiana .

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 4,470
1850 29,963 570.3%
1860 112,172 274.4%
1870 298,977 166.5%
1880 503,185 68.3%
1890 1,099,850 118.6%
1900 1,698,575 54.4%
1910 2,185,283 28.7%
1920 2,701,705 23.6%
1930 3,376,438 25.0%
1940 3,396,808 0.6%
1950 3,620,962 6.6%
1960 3,550,404 −1.9%
1970 3,366,957 −5.2%
1980 3,005,072 −10.7%
1990 2,783,726 −7.4%
2000 2,896,016 4.0%
2010 2,695,598 −6.9%
2020 2,746,388 1.9%
United States Census Bureau[160]
2010–2020[6]

During its first hundred years, Chicago was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world. When founded in 1833, fewer than 200 people had settled on what was then the American frontier. By the meter of its beginning census, seven years former, the population had reached over 4,000. In the forty years from 1850 to 1890, the city ‘s population grew from slenderly under 30,000 to over 1 million. At the end of the nineteenth hundred, Chicago was the fifth-largest city in the world, [ 161 ] and the largest of the cities that did not exist at the dawn of the hundred. Within sixty years of the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, the population went from about 300,000 to over 3 million, [ 162 ] and reached its highest ever recorded population of 3.6 million for the 1950 census. From the last two decades of the nineteenth hundred, Chicago was the finish of waves of immigrants from Ireland, Southern, Central and Eastern Europe, including Italians, Jews, Russians, Poles, Greeks, Lithuanians, Bulgarians, Albanians, Romanians, Turkish, Croatians, Serbs, Bosnians, Montenegrins and Czechs. [ 163 ] [ 164 ] To these cultural groups, the basis of the city ‘s industrial working classify, were added an extra inflow of african Americans from the American South —with Chicago ‘s black population doubling between 1910 and 1920 and doubling again between 1920 and 1930. [ 163 ] In the 1920s and 1930s, the bang-up majority of african Americans moving to Chicago settled in a so‑called “ Black Belt “ on the city ‘s South Side. [ 163 ] A big count of blacks besides settled on the West Side. By 1930, two-thirds of Chicago ‘s black population lived in sections of the city which were 90 % black in racial composing. [ 163 ] Chicago ‘s South Side emerged as United States second-largest urban black concentration, following New York ‘s Harlem. nowadays, Chicago ‘s South Side and the adjoining south suburbs constitute the largest bootleg majority region in the entire United States. [ 163 ] Chicago ‘s population declined in the latter half of the twentieth hundred, from over 3.6 million in 1950 down to under 2.7 million by 2010. By the time of the official census count in 1990, it was overtaken by Los Angeles as the United States ‘ second largest city. [ 165 ] The city has seen a rise in population for the 2000 census and after a decrease in 2010, it rose again for the 2020 census. [ 166 ] Per U.S. Census estimates as of July 2019, Chicago ‘s largest racial or heathen group is non-Hispanic White at 32.8 % of the population, Blacks at 30.1 % and the hispanic population at 29.0 % of the population. [ 167 ] [ 168 ] [ 169 ] [ 170 ]
White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other (yellow) Map of racial distribution in Chicago, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people : or ( yellow ) Chicago has the third-largest LGBT population in the United States. In 2018, the Chicago Department of Health, estimated 7.5 % of the pornographic population, approximately 146,000 Chicagoans, were LGBTQ. [ 174 ] In 2015, approximately 4 % of the population identified as LGBT. [ 175 ] [ 176 ] Since the 2013 legalization of same-sex marriage in Illinois, over 10,000 same-sex couples have wed in Cook County, a majority of them in Chicago. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] Chicago became a “ delaware jure ” sanctuary city in 2012 when Mayor Rahm Emanuel and the City Council passed the Welcoming City Ordinance. [ 179 ] According to the U.S. Census Bureau ‘s American Community Survey data estimates for 2008–2012, the median income for a family in the city was $ 47,408, and the median income for a family was $ 54,188. male full-time workers had a median income of $ 47,074 versus $ 42,063 for females. About 18.3 % of families and 22.1 % of the population lived below the poverty line. [ 180 ] In 2018, Chicago ranked 7th globally for the highest number of ultra-high-net-worth residents with roughly 3,300 residents worth more than $ 30 million. [ 181 ] According to the 2008–2012 American Community Survey, the ancestral groups having 10,000 or more persons in Chicago were : [ 182 ]

  • Ireland (137,799)
  • Poland (134,032)
  • Germany (120,328)
  • Italy (77,967)
  • China (66,978)
  • American (37,118)
  • UK (36,145)
  • recent African (32,727)
  • India (25,000)
  • Russia (19,771)
  • Arab (17,598)
  • European (15,753)
  • Sweden (15,151)
  • Japan (15,142)
  • Greece (15,129)
  • France (except Basque) (11,410)
  • Ukraine (11,104)
  • West Indian (except Hispanic groups) (10,349)

Persons identifying themselves in “ other groups ” were classified at 1.72 million, and unclassified or not reported were approximately 153,000. [ 182 ]

religion

Most people in Chicago are Christian, with the city being the 4th-most religious city in the United States after Dallas, Atlanta and Houston. [ 184 ] Roman Catholicism and Protestantism are the largest branches ( 34 % and 35 % respectively ), followed by Eastern Orthodoxy and Jehovah ‘s Witnesses with 1 % each. [ 183 ] Chicago besides has a goodly non-Christian population. Non-Christian groups include Irreligious ( 22 % ), Judaism ( 3 % ), Islam ( 2 % ), Buddhism ( 1 % ) and Hinduism ( 1 % ). [ 183 ] Chicago is the headquarters of respective religious denominations, including the Evangelical Covenant Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. It is the buttocks of several dioceses. The Fourth Presbyterian Church is one of the largest presbyterian congregations in the United States based on memberships. [ 185 ] Since the twentieth century Chicago has besides been the headquarters of the assyrian neo-aramaic church of the East. [ 186 ] In 2014 the Catholic Church was the largest individual christian denomination ( 34 % ), with the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago being the largest catholic jurisdiction. evangelical Protestantism shape the largest theological Protestant branch ( 16 % ), followed by Mainline Protestants ( 11 % ), and historically Black churches ( 8 % ). Among denominational Protestant branches, Baptists formed the largest group in Chicago ( 10 % ) ; followed by Nondenominational ( 5 % ) ; Lutherans ( 4 % ) ; and Pentecostals ( 3 % ). [ 183 ] Non-Christian faiths accounted for 7 % of the religious population in 2014. judaism has at least 261,000 adherents which is 3 % of the population, making it the second largest religion. [ 187 ] [ 183 ] A 2020 study estimated the entire jewish population of the Chicago metropolitan sphere, both religious and irreligious, at 319,600. [ 188 ] The beginning two parliament of the World ‘s Religions in 1893 and 1993 were held in Chicago. [ 189 ] Many external religious leaders have visited Chicago, including Mother Teresa, the Dalai Lama [ 190 ] and Pope John Paul II in 1979. [ 191 ]

economy

Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $ 670.5 billion according to September 2017 estimates. [ 192 ] The city has besides been rated as having the most balance economy in the United States, due to its high degree of diversification. [ 193 ] In 2007, Chicago was named the fourth-most authoritative occupation focus on in the universe in the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index. [ 194 ] Additionally, the Chicago metropolitan area recorded the greatest numeral of fresh or boom corporate facilities in the United States for calendar year 2014. [ 195 ] The Chicago metropolitan area has the third-largest science and engineering function effect of any metropolitan area in the nation. [ 196 ] In 2009 Chicago placed one-ninth on the UBS number of the world ‘s richest cities. [ 197 ] Chicago was the free-base of commercial operations for industrialists John Crerar, John Whitfield Bunn, Richard Teller Crane, Marshall Field, John Farwell, Julius Rosenwald and many other commercial visionaries who laid the foundation garment for Midwestern and global diligence .
Chicago is a major worldly concern fiscal concentrate, with the second-largest central commercial enterprise district in the United States. [ 198 ] The city is the seat of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, the Bank ‘s Seventh District. The city has major fiscal and futures exchanges, including the Chicago Stock Exchange, the Chicago Board Options Exchange ( CBOE ), and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange ( the “ Merc ” ), which is owned, along with the Chicago Board of Trade ( CBOT ) by Chicago ‘s CME Group. In 2017, Chicago exchanges traded 4.7 billion derivatives with a face value of over one quadrillion dollars. Chase Bank has its commercial and retail bank headquarters in Chicago ‘s Chase Tower. [ 199 ] Academically, Chicago has been influential through the Chicago school of economics, which fielded some 12 Nobel Prize winners. The city and its surrounding metropolitan area contain the third-largest tug pool in the United States with about 4.63 million workers. [ 200 ] Illinois is home to 66 Fortune 1000 companies, including those in Chicago. [ 201 ] The city of Chicago besides hosts 12 Fortune Global 500 companies and 17 Financial Times 500 companies. The city claims three Dow 30 companies : aerospace giant Boeing, which moved its headquarters from Seattle to the Chicago Loop in 2001, [ 202 ] McDonald ‘s and Walgreens Boots Alliance. [ 203 ] For six consecutive years since 2013, Chicago was ranked the state ‘s top metropolitan area for corporate relocations. [ 204 ] manufacture, printing, publish and food march besides play major roles in the city ‘s economy. respective medical products and services companies are headquartered in the Chicago area, including Baxter International, Boeing, Abbott Laboratories, and the Healthcare division of General Electric. In addition to Boeing, which located its headquarters in Chicago in 2001, and United Airlines in 2011, GE Transportation moved its offices to the city in 2013 and GE Healthcare moved its HQ to the city in 2016, as did ThyssenKrupp North America, and agriculture giant Archer Daniels Midland. [ 15 ] furthermore, the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, which helped move goods from the Great Lakes south on the Mississippi River, and of the railroads in the nineteenth hundred made the city a major department of transportation center in the United States. In the 1840s, Chicago became a major grain interface, and in the 1850s and 1860s Chicago ‘s pork barrel and gripe industry expanded. As the major kernel companies grew in Chicago many, such as Armour and Company, created ball-shaped enterprises. Although the meatpacking diligence presently plays a lesser role in the city ‘s economy, Chicago continues to be a major exile and distribution center. [ citation needed ] Lured by a combination of bombastic clientele customers, federal research dollars, and a large hiring consortium fed by the sphere ‘s universities, Chicago is besides the locate of a growing count of network inauguration companies like CareerBuilder, Orbitz, Basecamp, Groupon, Feedburner, Grubhub and NowSecure. [ 205 ] big food companies based in Chicago include the worldly concern headquarter of Conagra, Ferrara Candy Company, Kraft Heinz, McDonald ‘s, Mondelez International, Quaker Oats, and US Foods. [ citation needed ] Chicago has been a hub of the retail sector since its early development, with Montgomery Ward, Sears, and Marshall Field ‘s. Today the Chicago metropolitan area is the headquarter of several retailers, including Walgreens, Sears, Ace Hardware, Claire ‘s, ULTA Beauty and Crate & Barrel. [ citation needed ] late in the nineteenth century, Chicago was separate of the bicycle madden, with the western Wheel Company, which introduced stamping to the production summons and significantly reduced costs, [ 206 ] while early in the twentieth century, the city was share of the car revolution, hosting the Brass Era cable car builder Bugmobile, which was founded there in 1907. [ 207 ] Chicago was besides the site of the Schwinn Bicycle Company. Chicago is a major worldly concern convention address. The city ‘s main convention center is mccormick Place. With its four interconnected buildings, it is the largest conventionality center in the nation and third-largest in the worldly concern. [ 208 ] Chicago besides ranks one-third in the U.S. ( behind Las Vegas and Orlando ) in act of conventions hosted per annum. [ 209 ] Chicago ‘s minimum wage for non-tipped employees is one of the highest in the nation and reached $ 15 in 2021. [ 210 ] [ 211 ]

culture and contemporary life

The city ‘s waterfront localization and nightlife has attracted residents and tourists alike. Over a third of the city population is concentrated in the lakefront neighborhoods from Rogers Park in the north to South Shore in the confederacy. [ 212 ] The city has many upscale dining establishments angstrom well as many ethnic restaurant districts. These districts include the mexican American neighborhoods, such as Pilsen along 18th street, and La Villita along 26th Street ; the Puerto Rican enclave of Paseo Boricua in the Humboldt Park region ; Greektown, along South Halsted Street, immediately west of downtown ; [ 213 ] Little Italy, along Taylor Street ; Chinatown in Armour Square ; polish Patches in West Town ; Little Seoul in Albany Park around Lawrence Avenue ; Little Vietnam near Broadway in Uptown ; and the Desi area, along Devon Avenue in West Ridge. [ 214 ] Downtown is the center of Chicago ‘s fiscal, cultural, governmental and commercial institutions and the locate of Grant Park and many of the city ‘s skyscrapers. Many of the city ‘s fiscal institutions, such as the CBOT and the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, are located within a section of downtown called “ The Loop “, which is an eight-block by five-block area of city streets that is encircled by promote railing tracks. The term “ The Loop ” is largely used by locals to refer to the integral downtown area adenine well. The central sphere includes the Near North Side, the Near South Side, and the Near West Side, equally well as the Loop. These areas contribute celebrated skyscrapers, abundant restaurants, shopping, museums, a stadium for the Chicago Bears, conventionality facilities, park, and beaches. [ citation needed ]
A Chicago wind clubhouse Lincoln Park contains the Lincoln Park Zoo and the Lincoln Park Conservatory. The River North Gallery District features the nation ‘s largest concentration of contemporaneous art galleries outside of New York City. [ citation needed ] Lakeview is home to Boystown, the city ‘s large LGBT nightlife and polish plaza. The Chicago Pride Parade, held the last Sunday in June, is one of the earth ‘s largest with over a million people in attendance. [ 215 ] North Halsted Street is the chief thoroughfare of Boystown. [ 216 ] The South Side neighborhood of Hyde Park is the home of erstwhile US President Barack Obama. It besides contains the University of Chicago, ranked one of the universe ‘s top ten universities, [ 217 ] and the Museum of Science and Industry. The 6-mile ( 9.7 km ) farseeing Burnham Park stretches along the waterfront of the South Side. Two of the city ‘s largest parks are besides located on this side of the city : Jackson Park, bordering the waterfront, hosted the World ‘s columbian exposition in 1893, and is the web site of the aforesaid museum ; and slenderly west sits Washington Park. The two parks themselves are connected by a wide strip of park called the Midway Plaisance, running adjacent to the University of Chicago. The South Side hosts one of the city ‘s largest parades, the annual african american Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic, which travels through Bronzeville to Washington Park. Ford Motor Company has an automobile assembly establish on the South Side in Hegewisch, and most of the facilities of the Port of Chicago are besides on the South Side. [ citation needed ] The West Side holds the Garfield Park Conservatory, one of the largest collections of tropical plants in any U.S. city. Prominent Latino cultural attractions found here include Humboldt Park ‘s Institute of Puerto Rican Arts and Culture and the annual Puerto Rican People ‘s Parade, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the National Museum of Mexican Art and St. Adalbert ‘s Church in Pilsen. The dear West Side holds the University of Illinois at Chicago and was once home to Oprah Winfrey ‘s Harpo Studios, the web site of which has been rebuilt as the global headquarters of McDonald ‘s. [ citation needed ] The city ‘s classifiable accent, made celebrated by its manipulation in classic films like The Blues Brothers and television receiver programs like the Saturday Night Live skit “ Bill Swerski ‘s Superfans “, is an advance form of Inland Northern American English. This dialect can besides be found in other cities bordering the Great Lakes such as Cleveland, Milwaukee, Detroit, and Rochester, New York, and most prominently features a rearrangement of certain vowel sounds, such as the short ‘a ‘ healthy as in “ big cat ”, which can sound more like “ kyet ” to outsiders. The accent remains well associated with the city. [ 218 ]

entertainment and the arts

Renowned Chicago dramaturgy companies include the Goodman Theatre in the Loop ; the Steppenwolf Theatre Company and Victory Gardens Theater in Lincoln Park ; and the Chicago Shakespeare Theater at Navy Pier. Broadway In Chicago offers Broadway-style entertainment at five theaters : the Nederlander Theatre, CIBC Theatre, Cadillac Palace Theatre, Auditorium Building of Roosevelt University, and Broadway Playhouse at Water Tower Place. polish language productions for Chicago ‘s big polish speaking population can be seen at the historic Gateway Theatre in Jefferson Park. Since 1968, the Joseph Jefferson Awards are given per annum to acknowledge excellence in theater in the Chicago area. Chicago ‘s theater residential district spawned modern improvisational field, and includes the big groups The Second City and I.O. ( once ImprovOlympic ). [ citation needed ]
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra ( CSO ) performs at Symphony Center, and is recognized as one of the best orchestras in the worldly concern. [ 219 ] besides performing regularly at Symphony Center is the Chicago Sinfonietta, a more divers and multicultural counterpart to the CSO. In the summer, many outdoor concerts are given in Grant Park and Millennium Park. Ravinia Festival, located 25 miles ( 40 kilometer ) north of Chicago, is the summer home of the CSO, and is a favorite destination for many Chicagoans. The Civic Opera House is home to the Lyric Opera of Chicago. [ citation needed ] The lithuanian Opera Company of Chicago was founded by lithuanian Chicagoans in 1956, [ 220 ] and presents operas in Lithuanian. The Joffrey Ballet and Chicago Festival Ballet perform in respective venues, including the Harris Theater in Millennium Park. Chicago has respective early contemporaneous and jazz dance troupes, such as the Hubbard Street Dance Chicago and Chicago Dance Crash. [ citation needed ]
other live-music writing style which are depart of the city ‘s cultural heritage include Chicago blues, Chicago soul, jazz, and gospel. The city is the birthplace of firm music ( a democratic shape of electronic dance music ) and industrial music, and is the site of an influential hep hop scene. In the 1980s and 90s, the city was the ball-shaped center for house and industrial music, two forms of music created in Chicago, a well as being popular for alternate rock, punk rocker, and new wave. The city has been a center for rave culture, since the 1980s. A brandish independent rock music polish brought forth Chicago indie. annual festivals feature assorted acts, such as Lollapalooza and the Pitchfork Music Festival. [ citation needed ] A 2007 report on the Chicago music industry by the University of Chicago Cultural Policy Center ranked Chicago third among metropolitan U.S. areas in “ size of music diligence ” and fourth among all U.S. cities in “ number of concerts and performances ”. [ 221 ] Chicago has a distinctive fine art tradition. For much of the twentieth century, it nurtured a impregnable style of figurative surrealism, as in the works of Ivan Albright and Ed Paschke. In 1968 and 1969, members of the Chicago Imagists, such as Roger Brown, Leon Golub, Robert Lostutter, Jim Nutt, and Barbara Rossi produced bizarre representational paintings. Henry Darger is one of the most celebrated figures of outsider artwork. [ citation needed ] Chicago contains a count of large, outdoor works by well-known artists. These include the Chicago Picasso, Miró’s Chicago, Flamingo and Flying Dragon by Alexander Calder, Agora by Magdalena Abakanowicz, Monument with Standing Beast by Jean Dubuffet, Batcolumn by Claes Oldenburg, Cloud Gate by Anish Kapoor, Crown Fountain by Jaume Plensa, and the Four Seasons mosaic by Marc Chagall. [ citation needed ] Chicago besides hosts a nationally televised Thanksgiving parade that occurs annually. The Chicago Thanksgiving Parade is broadcast live nationally on WGN-TV and WGN America, featuring a kind of diverse acts from the community, marching bands from across the area, and is the alone parade in the city to feature inflatable balloons every class. [ 222 ]

tourism

Ferries offer sightseeing tours and water-taxi transportation along the Chicago River and Lake Michigan. In 2014, Chicago attracted 50.17 million domestic leisure travelers, 11.09 million domestic business travelers and 1.308 million oversea visitors. [ 223 ] These visitors contributed more than US $ 13.7 billion to Chicago ‘s economy. [ 223 ] Upscale shopping along the Magnificent Mile and State Street, thousands of restaurants, ampere well as Chicago ‘s eminent architecture, continue to draw tourists. The city is the United States ‘ third-largest convention destination. A 2017 sketch by Walk Score ranked Chicago the sixth-most walkable of fifty largest cities in the United States. [ 224 ] Most conventions are held at McCormick Place, barely south of Soldier Field. The historic Chicago Cultural Center ( 1897 ), originally serving as the Chicago Public Library, now houses the city ‘s Visitor Information Center, galleries and parade halls. The ceiling of its Preston Bradley Hall includes a 38-foot ( 12 molarity ) Tiffany glass attic. Grant Park holds Millennium Park, Buckingham Fountain ( 1927 ), and the Art Institute of Chicago. The parking lot besides hosts the annual Taste of Chicago festival. In Millennium Park, the brooding Cloud Gate public sculpt by artist Anish Kapoor is the centerpiece of the AT & T Plaza in Millennium Park. besides, an outdoor restaurant transforms into an methamphetamine rink in the winter season. Two improbable glass sculptures make up the Crown Fountain. The fountain ‘s two towers display ocular effects from LED images of Chicagoans ‘ faces, along with urine spouting from their lips. Frank Gehry ‘s detail, stainless steel dance band blast, the Jay Pritzker Pavilion, hosts the classical Grant Park Music Festival concert series. Behind the pavilion ‘s stage is the Harris Theater for Music and Dance, an indoor venue for mid-sized perform arts companies, including the Chicago Opera Theater and Music of the Baroque. [ citation needed ]
aeriform View of Navy Pier at Night Navy Pier, located equitable east of Streeterville, is 3,000 foot ( 910 meter ) long and houses retail stores, restaurants, museums, exhibition halls and auditoriums. In the summer of 2016, Navy Pier constructed a DW60 Ferris bicycle. dutch Wheels, a universe renowned company that manufactures ferris wheels, was selected to design the new wheel. [ 225 ] It features 42 dark blue blue gondolas that can hold up to eight adults and two children. It besides has entertainment systems inside the car a well as a climate controlled environment. The DW60 stands at approximately 196 ft ( 60 thousand ), which is 46 feet ( 14 molarity ) grandiloquent than the previous steering wheel. The newly DW60 is the first in the United States and is the sixth tall in the U.S. [ 226 ] Chicago was the first city in the world to ever erect a ferris wheel .
On June 4, 1998, the city officially opened the Museum Campus, a 10-acre ( 4 hour angle ) lakefront park, surrounding three of the city ‘s main museums, each of which is of national importance : the Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum, the Field Museum of Natural History, and the Shedd Aquarium. The Museum Campus joins the southern section of Grant Park, which includes the celebrated Art Institute of Chicago. Buckingham Fountain anchors the downtown ballpark along the lakefront. The University of Chicago Oriental Institute has an extensive collection of ancient egyptian and about Eastern archaeological artifacts. other museums and galleries in Chicago include the Chicago History Museum, the Driehaus Museum, the DuSable Museum of african american english History, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the Peggy Notebaert Nature Museum, the Polish Museum of America, the Museum of Broadcast Communications, the Pritzker Military Library, the Chicago Architecture Foundation, and the Museum of Science and Industry. [ citation needed ] With an estimated completion go steady of 2020, the Barack Obama Presidential Center will be housed at the University of Chicago in Hyde Park and include both the Obama presidential library and offices of the Obama Foundation. [ 227 ] The Willis Tower ( once named Sears Tower ) is a democratic finish for tourists. The Willis Tower has an observation pack of cards open to tourists year round with high up views overlooking Chicago and Lake Michigan. The observation deck includes an enclosed glass balcony that extends 10 feet ( 3 thousand ) out on the side of the building. Tourists are able to look square down. [ citation needed ] In 2013, Chicago was chosen as one of the “ Top Ten Cities in the United States ” to visit for its restaurants, skyscrapers, museums, and waterfront, by the readers of Condé Nast Traveler, [ 228 ] [ 229 ] and in 2020 for the one-fourth year in a row, Chicago was named the top U.S. city tourism address. [ 230 ]

cuisine

Chicago lays title to a boastfully count of regional specialties that reflect the city ‘s ethnic and wage-earning roots. Included among these are its nationally renowned deep-dish pizza ; this style is said to have originated at Pizzeria Uno. [ 231 ] The Chicago-style thin crust is besides popular in the city. [ 232 ] Certain Chicago pizza favorites include Lou Malnati ‘s and Giordano ‘s. [ 233 ] The Chicago-style hot frank, typically an all-beef hot frump, is loaded with an array of toppings that much includes fix enjoy, scandalmongering mustard, pickled sport peppers, tomato wedges, dill fix spear and topped off with celery salt on a poppy seed bun. [ 234 ] Enthusiasts of the Chicago-style hot andiron frown upon the use of catsup as a garnish, but may prefer to add giardiniera. [ 235 ] [ 236 ] [ 237 ]
A distinctly Chicago sandwich, the italian beef sandwich is thinly slice beef simmered in gold jus and served on an italian peal with odoriferous peppers or blue giardiniera. A democratic change is the Combo—an Italian gripe sandwich with the addition of an italian blimp. The Maxwell Street Polish is a grill or french-fry kielbasa —on a hot chase roll, topped with grill onions, jaundiced mustard, and hot sport peppers. [ 238 ] Chicken Vesuvio is roasted bone-in chicken cooked in vegetable oil and garlic next to garlicky oven-roasted potato wedges and a scattering of green peas. The Puerto Rican -influenced jibarito is a sandwich made with flatten, fried green plantains alternatively of boodle. The mother-in-law is a tamale topped with chili and served on a hot dog bun. [ 239 ] The tradition of serving the greek dish saganaki while ablaze has its origins in Chicago ‘s Greek community. [ 240 ] The appetizer, which consists of a square of electrocute cheese, is doused with Metaxa and flambéed table-side. [ 241 ] Annual festivals feature versatile Chicago signature dishes, such as taste of Chicago and the Chicago Food Truck Festival. [ 242 ] One of the earth ‘s most deck restaurants and a recipient of three Michelin stars, Alinea is located in Chicago. long-familiar chefs who have had restaurants in Chicago include : Charlie Trotter, Rick Tramonto, Grant Achatz, and Rick Bayless. In 2003, Robb Report named Chicago the country ‘s “ most exceeding dine finish ”. [ 243 ]

literature

“Hog Butcher for the World/Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat/ Player with Railroads and the Nation’s Freight Handler,/ Stormy, Husky, Brawling, City of the Big Shoulders.”Carl Sandburg ‘s most famous description of the city is as Chicago literature finds its roots in the city ‘s custom of coherent, direct journalism, lending to a potent tradition of sociable realism. In the Encyclopedia of Chicago, Northwestern University Professor Bill Savage describes Chicago fabrication as prose which tries to “ capture the essence of the city, its spaces and its people “. The challenge for early writers was that Chicago was a frontier outpost that transformed into a ball-shaped city in the couple of two generations. narrative fabrication of that time, much of it in the style of “ exalted romance ” and “ genteel realism ”, needed a new approach to describe the urban social, political, and economic conditions of Chicago. [ 244 ] Nonetheless, Chicagoans worked hard to create a literary tradition that would stand the test of time, [ 245 ] and create a “ city of feeling ” out of concrete, steel, huge lake, and open prairie. [ 246 ] much celebrated Chicago fabrication focuses on the city itself, with social criticism keeping exultation in hindrance. At least three brusque periods in the history of Chicago have had a permanent influence on american literature. [ 247 ] These include from the time of the Great Chicago Fire to about 1900, what became known as the Chicago Literary Renaissance in the 1910s and early 1920s, and the period of the Great Depression through the 1940s. What would become the influential Poetry cartridge holder was founded in 1912 by Harriet Monroe, who was working as an art critic for the Chicago Tribune. The magazine discovered such poets as Gwendolyn Brooks, James Merrill, and John Ashbery. [ 248 ] T. S. Eliot ‘s first professionally published poem, “ The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock “, was beginning published by Poetry. Contributors have included Ezra Pound, William Butler Yeats, William Carlos Williams, Langston Hughes, and Carl Sandburg, among others. The cartridge holder was implemental in launching the Imagist and Objectivist poetic movements. From the 1950s through 1970s, American poetry continued to evolve in Chicago. [ 249 ] In the 1980s, a mod form of poetry performance began in Chicago, the Poetry Slam. [ 250 ]

Sports

Sporting News named Chicago the “ Best Sports City ” in the United States in 1993, 2006, and 2010. [ 251 ] Along with Boston, Chicago is the merely city to endlessly host major professional sports since 1871, having only taken 1872 and 1873 off due to the Great Chicago Fire. additionally, Chicago is one of the eight cities in the United States to have won championships in the four major professional leagues and, along with Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia and Washington, is one of five cities to have won soccer championships ampere well. All of its major franchises have won championships within late years – the Bears ( 1985 ), the Bulls ( 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, and 1998 ), the White Sox ( 2005 ), the Cubs ( 2016 ), the Blackhawks ( 2010, 2013, 2015 ), and the Fire ( 1998 ). Chicago has the third most franchises in the four major north american sports leagues with five, behind the New York and Los Angeles Metropolitan Areas, and have six top-level master sports clubs when including Chicago Fire FC of Major League Soccer ( MLS ). [ citation needed ]
The city has two Major League Baseball ( MLB ) teams : the Chicago Cubs of the National League play in Wrigley Field on the North Side ; and the Chicago White Sox of the American League play in Guaranteed Rate Field on the South Side. Chicago is the only city that has had more than one MLB franchise every year since the AL began in 1901 ( New York hosted alone one between 1958 and early 1962 ). The two teams have faced each other in a World Series only once : in 1906, when the White Sox, known as the “ Hitless Wonders, ” defeated the Cubs, 4–2. [ citation needed ] The Cubs are the oldest major League Baseball team to have never changed their city ; [ 252 ] they have played in Chicago since 1871, and endlessly so since 1874 due to the Great Chicago Fire. They have played more games and have more wins than any other team in Major League baseball since 1876. [ 253 ] They have won three World Series titles, including the 2016 World Series, but had the doubtful honor of having the two longest droughts in american professional sports : They had not won their sport ‘s title since 1908, and had not participated in a World Series since 1945, both records, until they beat the Cleveland Indians in the 2016 World Series. [ citation needed ] The White Sox have played on the South Side continuously since 1901, with all three of their home fields throughout the years being within blocks of one another. They have won three World Series titles ( 1906, 1917, 2005 ) and six American League pennants, including the foremost in 1901. The Sox are fifth in the American League in all-time wins, and sixth in pennants. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Bears, one of the end two remaining rent members of the National Football League ( NFL ), have won nine NFL Championships, including the 1985 Super Bowl XX. The other remaining charter franchise, the Chicago Cardinals, besides started out in the city, but is now known as the Arizona Cardinals. The Bears have won more games in the history of the NFL than any other team, [ 254 ] and only the Green Bay Packers, their longtime rivals, have won more championships. The Bears play their home games at Soldier Field. Soldier Field re-opened in 2003 after an extensive renovation. The Chicago Bulls of the National Basketball Association ( NBA ) is one of the most greet basketball teams in the world. [ 255 ] During the 1990s, with Michael Jordan leading them, the Bulls won six NBA championships in eight seasons. [ 256 ] [ 257 ] They besides boast the youngest player to win the NBA Most Valuable Player Award, Derrick Rose, who won it for the 2010–11 season. [ 258 ] The Chicago Blackhawks of the National Hockey League ( NHL ) began play in 1926, and are one of the “ Original Six “ teams of the NHL. The Blackhawks have won six Stanley Cups, including in 2010, 2013, and 2015. Both the Bulls and the Blackhawks meet at the United Center. [ citation needed ]
Chicago Fire FC is a penis of Major League Soccer ( MLS ) and plays at Soldier Field. After playing its first eight seasons at Soldier Field, the team moved to suburban Bridgeview to play at SeatGeek Stadium. In 2019, the team announced a affect back to Soldier Field. [ 259 ] The Fire have won one league deed and four U.S. Open Cups, since their establish in 1997. In 1994, the United States hosted a successful FIFA World Cup with games played at Soldier Field. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Sky is a professional basketball team dally in the Women ‘s National Basketball Association ( WNBA ). They play home games at the Wintrust Arena. The team was founded before the 2006 WNBA season began. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Marathon has been held each class since 1977 except for 1987, when a half marathon was run in its place. The Chicago Marathon is one of six World Marathon Majors. [ 260 ] Five sphere colleges play in Division I conferences : two from major conferences—the DePaul Blue Demons ( Big East Conference ) and the Northwestern Wildcats ( Big Ten Conference ) —and three from other D1 conferences—the Chicago State Cougars ( Western Athletic Conference ) ; the Loyola Ramblers ( Missouri Valley Conference ) ; and the UIC Flames ( Horizon League ). [ 261 ] Chicago has besides entered into eSports with the creation of the Chicago Huntsmen, a professional call of Duty team that participates within the CDL. At the Call of Duty League ‘s Launch Week games in Minneapolis, Minnesota, the Chicago Huntsmen went on to beat both the Dallas Empire and Optic Gaming Los Angeles. [ citation needed ]

Parks and greenspace

When Chicago was incorporated in 1837, it chose the motto Urbs in Horto, a Latin phrase which means “ City in a Garden ”. today, the Chicago Park District consists of more than 570 parks with over 8,000 acres ( 3,200 hour angle ) of municipal park. There are 31 backbone beaches, a overplus of museums, two first conservatories, and 50 nature areas. [ 262 ] Lincoln Park, the largest of the city ‘s parks, covers 1,200 acres ( 490 hour angle ) and has over 20 million visitors each year, making it third base in the number of visitors after Central Park in New York City, and the National Mall and Memorial Parks in Washington, D.C. [ 263 ] There is a historic avenue system, [ 264 ] a network of wide, tree-lined boulevards which connect a number of Chicago parks. [ 265 ] The boulevards and the parks were authorized by the Illinois legislature in 1869. [ 266 ] A number of Chicago neighborhoods emerged along these roadways in the nineteenth century. [ 265 ] The build of the avenue system continued intermittently until 1942. It includes nineteen boulevards, eight parks, and six squares, along twenty-six miles of coordinated streets. [ 267 ] The Chicago Park Boulevard System Historic District was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2018. [ 268 ] [ 269 ] With berths for more than 6,000 boats, the Chicago Park District operates the state ‘s largest municipal harbor system. [ 270 ] In accession to ongoing beautification and reclamation projects for the existing parks, a number of raw parks have been added in recent years, such as the Ping Tom Memorial Park in Chinatown, DuSable Park on the Near North Side, and most notably, Millennium Park, which is in the northwestern recess of one of Chicago ‘s oldest park, Grant Park in the Chicago Loop. [ citation needed ] The wealth of greenspace afforded by Chicago ‘s park is further augmented by the Cook County Forest Preserves, a net of open spaces containing forest, prairie, wetland, streams, and lakes that are set away as lifelike areas which lie along the city ‘s outskirts, [ 271 ] including both the Chicago Botanic Garden in Glencoe and the Brookfield Zoo in Brookfield. [ 272 ] Washington Park is besides one of the city ‘s biggest park ; covering about 400 acres ( 160 hour angle ). The parking lot is listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in South Side Chicago. [ citation needed ]

jurisprudence and government

politics

The government of the City of Chicago is divided into executive and legislative branches. The mayor of Chicago is the chief administrator, elected by general election for a term of four years, with no condition limits. The stream mayor is Lori Lightfoot. The mayor appoints commissioners and other officials who oversee the respective departments. american samoa well as the mayor, Chicago ‘s clerk and treasurer are besides elected citywide. The City Council is the legislative branch and is made up of 50 aldermen, one elected from each ward in the city. [ 273 ] The council takes official action through the passage of ordinances and resolutions and approves the city budget. [ 274 ] The Chicago Police Department provides police enforcement and the Chicago Fire Department provides fire suppression and hand brake checkup services for the city and its residents. Civil and criminal law cases are heard in the Cook County Circuit Court of the State of Illinois court arrangement, or in the Northern District of Illinois, in the federal organization. In the submit court, the public prosecutor is the Illinois state ‘s lawyer ; in the Federal court it is the United States lawyer .

Politics

During much of the last half of the nineteenth century, Chicago ‘s politics were dominated by a growing democratic Party constitution. During the 1880s and 1890s, Chicago had a powerful radical custom with bombastic and highly organized socialistic, anarchist and labor organizations. For much of the twentieth hundred, Chicago has been among the largest and most reliable democratic strongholds in the United States ; with Chicago ‘s democratic vote the state of Illinois has been “ solid blue “ in presidential elections since 1992. even before then, it was not unheard of for Republican presidential candidates to win handily in downstate Illinois, entirely to lose statewide due to bombastic democratic margins in Chicago. The citizens of Chicago have not elected a republican mayor since 1927, when William Thompson was voted into office. The force of the party in the city is partially a consequence of Illinois state politics, where the Republicans have come to represent rural and farm concerns while the Democrats support urban issues such as Chicago ‘s public school support. [ citation needed ] Chicago contains less than 25 % of the state ‘s population, but it is split between eight of Illinois ‘ 19 districts in the United States House of Representatives. All eight of the city ‘s representatives are Democrats ; only two Republicans have represented a significant fortune of the city since 1973, for one term each : Robert P. Hanrahan from 1973 to 1975, and Michael Patrick Flanagan from 1995 to 1997. [ citation needed ] machine politics persisted in Chicago after the refuse of similar machines in other large U.S. cities. During much of that meter, the city government found resistance chiefly from a broad “ independent ” cabal of the Democratic Party. The independents ultimately gained control of city government in 1983 with the election of Harold Washington ( in function 1983–1987 ). From 1989 until May 16, 2011, Chicago was under the leadership of its longest-serving mayor, Richard M. Daley, the son of Richard J. Daley. Because of the dominance of the Democratic Party in Chicago, the democratic basal vote held in the spring is broadly more significant than the general elections in November for U.S. House and Illinois State seats. The aldermanic, mayoral, and other city offices are filled through nonpartisan elections with runoffs as needed. [ citation needed ] The city is base of erstwhile United States President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama ; Barack Obama was once a state legislator representing Chicago and former a US senator. The Obamas ‘ residence is located near the University of Chicago in Kenwood on the city ‘s confederacy side. [ 277 ]

crime

Chicago had a mangle rate of 18.5 per 100,000 residents in 2012, ranking 16th among uracil cities with 100,000 people or more. [ 278 ] This was higher than in New York City and Los Angeles, the two largest cities in the United States, which have lower murder rates and lower full homicides. however, it was less than in many smaller american cities, including New Orleans, Newark, and Detroit, which had 53 murders per 100,000 residents in 2012. The 2015 year-end crime statistics showed there were 468 murders in Chicago in 2015 compared with 416 the year ahead, a 12.5 % increase, equally well as 2,900 shootings—13 % more than the year anterior, and up 29 % since 2013. Chicago had more homicides than any other city in 2015 in total but not on per caput basis, according to the Chicago Tribune. [ 279 ] In its annual crime statistics for 2016, the Chicago Police Department reported that the city experienced a dramatic advance in gunman violence, with 4,331 shooting victims. The department besides reported 762 murders in Chicago for the class 2016, a total that marked a 62.79 % increase in homicides from 2015. [ 280 ] In June 2017, the Chicago Police Department and the Federal ATF announced a fresh undertaking force, like to past task forces, to address the menstruate of illegal guns and repeat offenses with guns. [ 281 ] According to reports in 2013, “ most of Chicago ‘s violent crime comes from gangs trying to maintain dominance of drug-selling territories ”, [ 282 ] and is specifically related to the activities of the Sinaloa Cartel, which is active in respective american cities. By 2006, the trust sought to control most illicit drug sales. [ 283 ] Violent crime rates vary significantly by area of the city, with more economically developed areas having low rates, but other sections have much higher rates of crime. [ 282 ] In 2013, the violent crime rate was 910 per 100,000 people ; [ 284 ] the murder rate was 10.4 – while high crime districts saw 38.9, low crime districts saw 2.5 murders per 100,000. [ 285 ] The total of murders in Chicago peaked at 970 in 1974, when the city ‘s population was over 3 million people ( a mangle rate of about 29 per 100,000 ), and it reached 943 murders in 1992, ( a mangle rate of 34 per 100,000 ). [ 286 ] however, Chicago, like other major U.S. cities, experienced a significant reduction in violent crime rates through the 1990s, falling to 448 homicides in 2004, its lowest entire since 1965 and only 15.65 murders per 100,000. Chicago ‘s homicide run remained low during 2005 ( 449 ), 2006 ( 452 ), and 2007 ( 435 ) but rose to 510 in 2008, breaking 500 for the first time since 2003. [ 287 ] [ 288 ] In 2009, the murder count fell to 458 ( 10 % down ). [ 289 ] and in 2010 Chicago ‘s murder rate fell to 435 ( 16.14 per 100,000 ), a 5 % decrease from 2009 and lowest levels since 1965. [ 290 ] In 2011, Chicago ‘s murders fell another 1.2 % to 431 ( a rate of 15.94 per 100,000 ). [ 291 ] but shot up to 506 in 2012. [ 293 ] In 2012, Chicago ranked 21st in the United States in numbers of homicides per person, and in the first half of 2013 there was a significant drop per-person, in all categories of violent crime, including homicide ( down 26 % ). [ 294 ] Chicago ended 2013 with 415 murders, the lowest issue of murders since 1965, and overall crime rates dropped by 16 percentage. [ 295 ] In 2013, the city ‘s murder rate was entirely slightly higher than the national average as a whole. [ 296 ] According to the FBI, St. Louis, New Orleans, Detroit, and Baltimore had the highest murder rate along with respective other cities. [ 297 ] Jens Ludwig, director of the University of Chicago Crime Lab, estimated that shootings cost the city of Chicago $ 2.5 billion in 2012. [ 298 ] As of 2021, Chicago has become the american city with the highest count of carjackings. Chicago began experiencing a massive soar in carjackings after 2019, and at least 1,415 such crimes took place in the city in 2020. [ 299 ] According to the Chicago Police Department, carjackers are using confront masks that are widely break due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic to effectively blend in with the public and conceal their identity. On January 27, 2021, Mayor Lightfoot described the worsening beckon of carjackings as being ‘top of mind, ‘ and added 40 police officers to the CPD carjacking unit of measurement. [ 300 ]

Employee pensions

In September 2016, an Illinois country appellate court found that cities do not have an obligation under the Illinois Constitution to pay certain benefits if those benefits had included an termination date under whichever negotiated agreement they were covered. The Illinois Constitution prohibits governments from doing anything that could cause retirement benefits for politics workers to be “ diminished or impaired. ” In this particular casing, the fact that the workers ‘ agreements had exhalation dates let the city of Chicago set an exhalation date of 2013 for contribution to health benefits for workers who retired after 1989. [ 301 ]

education

Guinness World Records as the largest municipal public library building in the world. When it was opened in 1991, the central Harold Washington Library appeared inas the largest municipal public library build up in the world .

Schools and libraries

Chicago Public Schools ( CPS ) is the governing body of the school zone that contains over 600 public elementary and high schools citywide, including respective selective-admission magnet schools. There are football team selective registration high schools in the Chicago Public Schools, [ 302 ] designed to meet the needs of Chicago ‘s most academically advance students. These schools offer a rigorous course of study with chiefly honors and Advanced Placement ( AP ) courses. [ 303 ] Walter Payton College Prep High School is ranked number one in the city of Chicago and the state of Illinois. [ 304 ] Northside College Preparatory High School is ranked second, Jones College Prep is third base, and the oldest attraction school in the city, Whitney M. Young Magnet High School, which was opened in 1975, is rank fourth. [ 305 ] The attraction school with the largest registration is Lane Technical College Prep High School. [ citation needed ] Lane is one of the oldest schools in Chicago and in 2012 was designated a National Blue Ribbon School by the U.S. Department of Education. [ 306 ] Chicago high school rankings are determined by the average test scores on state accomplishment tests. [ 307 ] The zone, with an registration exceeding 400,545 students ( 2013–2014 20th Day Enrollment ), is the third-largest in the U.S. [ 308 ] On September 10, 2012, teachers for the Chicago Teachers Union went on strike for the first time since 1987 over give, resources and other issues. [ 309 ] According to data compiled in 2014, Chicago ‘s “ option system ”, where students who test or apply and may attend one of a phone number of populace high schools ( there are about 130 ), sorts students of unlike accomplishment levels into different schools ( eminent perform, center acting, and low do schools ). [ 310 ] Chicago has a network of Lutheran schools, [ 311 ] and respective individual schools are run by other denominations and faiths, such as the Ida Crown Jewish Academy in West Ridge. respective private schools are completely laic, such as the Latin School of Chicago in the Near North Side region, the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools in Hyde Park, the british School of Chicago and the Francis W. Parker School in Lincoln Park, the Lycée Français de Chicago in Uptown, the Feltre School in River North and the Morgan Park Academy. [ citation needed ] There are besides the individual Chicago Academy for the Arts, a high school focused on six different categories of the arts and the public Chicago High School for the Arts, a high school focused on five categories ( ocular arts, dramaturgy, musical field, dance, and music ) of the arts. [ 312 ] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Chicago operates Catholic schools, that include Jesuit preparatory schools and others including St. Rita of Cascia High School, De La Salle Institute, Josephinum Academy, DePaul College Prep, Cristo Rey Jesuit High School, Brother Rice High School, St. Ignatius College Preparatory School, Mount Carmel High School, Queen of Peace High School, Mother McAuley Liberal Arts High School, Marist High School, St. Patrick High School and Resurrection High School. [ citation needed ] The Chicago Public Library system operates 79 populace libraries, including the central library, two regional libraries, and numerous branches distributed throughout the city. [ citation needed ]

Colleges and universities

Since the 1850s, Chicago has been a earth center of higher education and research with several universities. These institutions systematically rank among the exceed “ National Universities ” in the United States, as determined by U.S. News & World Report. [ citation needed ] Highly regarded universities in Chicago and the besiege area are : the University of Chicago ; Northwestern University ; Illinois Institute of Technology ; Loyola University Chicago ; DePaul University ; Columbia College Chicago and University of Illinois at Chicago. other luminary schools include : Chicago State University ; the School of the Art Institute of Chicago ; East–West University ; National Louis University ; North Park University ; Northeastern Illinois University ; Robert Morris University Illinois ; Roosevelt University ; Saint Xavier University ; Rush University ; and Shimer College. [ 313 ] William Rainey Harper, the first gear president of the united states of the University of Chicago, was implemental in the creation of the junior college concept, establishing nearby Joliet Junior College as the first in the nation in 1901. [ 314 ] His bequest continues with the multiple community colleges in the Chicago proper, including the seven City Colleges of Chicago : Richard J. Daley College, Kennedy–King College, Malcolm X College, Olive–Harvey College, Truman College, Harold Washington College and Wilbur Wright College, in addition to the privately held MacCormac College. [ citation needed ] Chicago besides has a high concentration of post-baccalaureate institutions, graduate schools, seminaries, and theological schools, such as the Adler School of Professional Psychology, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology, the Erikson Institute, The Institute for Clinical Social Work, the Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, the Catholic Theological Union, the Moody Bible Institute, the John Marshall Law School and the University of Chicago Divinity School. [ citation needed ]

Media

television

The Chicago metropolitan area is the third-largest media marketplace in North America, after New York City and Los Angeles and a major media hub. [ 315 ] Each of the boastful four U.S. television networks, CBS, ABC, NBC and Fox, directly owns and operates a high-definition television station in Chicago ( WBBM 2, WLS 7, WMAQ 5 and WFLD 32, respectively ). Former CW affiliate WGN-TV 9, which is owned by the Tribune Media, is carried with some scheduling differences, as “ WGN America “ on cable and satellite television receiver countrywide and in parts of the Caribbean .
The former Harpo Studios in West Loop, Chicago was home of The Oprah Winfrey Show from 1986 until 2011 and other Harpo Production operations until 2015. Chicago has besides been the home of respective outstanding talk shows, including The Oprah Winfrey Show, Steve Harvey Show, The Rosie Show, The Jerry Springer Show, The Phil Donahue Show, The Jenny Jones Show, and more. The city besides has one PBS extremity post ( its second : WYCC 20, removed its affiliation with PBS in 2017 [ 316 ] ) : WTTW 11, producer of shows such as Sneak Previews, The Frugal Gourmet, Lamb Chop’s Play-Along and The McLaughlin Group. As of 2018, Windy City Live is Chicago ‘s only day lecture appearance, which is hosted by Val Warner and Ryan Chiaverini at ABC7 Studios with a live weekday hearing. Since 1999, Judge Mathis besides films his syndicate arbitration-based reality court prove at the NBC Tower. Beginning in January 2019, Newsy began producing 12 of its 14 hours of live news programming per day from its new facility in Chicago. [ citation needed ]

Newspapers

Two major daily newspapers are published in Chicago : the Chicago Tribune and the Chicago Sun-Times, with the Tribune having the larger circulation. There are besides respective regional and special-interest newspapers and magazines, such as Chicago, the Dziennik Związkowy ( Polish Daily News ), Draugas ( the Lithuanian daily newspaper ), the Chicago Reader, the SouthtownStar, the Chicago Defender, the Daily Herald, Newcity, [ 317 ] [ 318 ] StreetWise and the Windy City Times. The entertainment and cultural magazine Time Out Chicago and GRAB cartridge holder are besides published in the city, vitamin a good as local music cartridge holder Chicago Innerview. In addition, Chicago is the family of satirical national news mercantile establishment, The Onion, equally well as its sister pop-culture publication, The A.V. Club. [ 319 ]

Movies and filming

Since the 1980s, many movement pictures have been filmed or set in the city such as The Untouchables, The Blues Brothers, The Matrix, Brewster’s Millions, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Sixteen Candles, Home Alone, The Fugitive, I, Robot, Mean Girls, Wanted, Batman Begins, The Dark Knight, Dhoom 3, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Transformers: Age of Extinction, Transformers: The Last Knight, Divergent, Man of Steel, Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, Sinister 2, Suicide Squad, Justice League, Rampage and The Batman. In The Dark Knight Trilogy and the DC Extended Universe, Chicago was used as the inhalation and film site for Gotham City and Metropolis respectively. [ 320 ] [ 321 ] Chicago has besides been the fructify of a number of television shows, including the situation comedies Perfect Strangers and its spinoff Family Matters, Married… with Children, Punky Brewster, Kenan & Kel, Still Standing, The League, The Bob Newhart Show, and Shake It Up. The city served as the venue for the medical drama ER and Chicago Hope, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as the fantasy drama series Early Edition and the 2005–2009 drama Prison Break. Discovery Channel films two shows in Chicago : Cook County Jail and the Chicago version of Cash Cab. early luminary shows include CBS ‘s The Good Wife and Mike and Molly. [ citation needed ] Chicago is presently the context for Showtime ‘s Shameless, and NBC ‘s Chicago Fire, Chicago P.D. and Chicago Med. [ 322 ] All three Chicago franchise shows are filmed locally throughout Chicago and maintain strong home viewership averaging 7 million viewers per show. [ 323 ]

radio

Chicago has five 50,000 watt AM radio receiver stations : the CBS Radio -owned WBBM and WSCR ; the Tribune Broadcasting -owned WGN ; the Cumulus Media -owned WLS ; and the ESPN Radio -owned WMVP. Chicago is besides home to a phone number of national radio shows, including Beyond the Beltway with Bruce DuMont on Sunday evenings. [ citation needed ] Chicago Public Radio produces nationally aired programs such as PRI ‘s This American Life and NPR ‘s Wait Wait…Don’t Tell Me!. [ citation needed ]

music

In 2005, indie rock artist Sufjan Stevens created a concept album about Illinois titled Illinois ; many of its songs were about Chicago and its history. [ citation needed ]

Industrial genre

The city was peculiarly authoritative for the development of the harsh and electronic based music music genre known as industrial. many themes are transgressive and derived from the works of authors such as William S. Burroughs. While the genre was pioneered by Throbbing Gristle in the late 70s, the music genre was largely started in the United Kingdom, with the Chicago-based record label Wax Trax ! late establishing itself as America ‘s home for the music genre. The label beginning found success with Ministry, with the handout of the cold life sentence single, which entered the US Dance charts in 1982. [ citation needed ] The record pronounce late signed many big industrial acts, with the most luminary being : My life with the Thrill Kill Kult, KMFDM, Front Line Assembly and Front 242. Richard Giraldi of the Chicago Sun-Times note on the significance of the tag and wrote, “ arsenic authoritative as chess Records was to blues and soul music, Chicago ‘s Wax Trax depression was just american samoa meaning to the punk rock rock, new wave and industrial genres. ” [ 324 ]

Video games

Chicago is besides featured in a few video games, including Watch Dogs and Midtown Madness, a real-life, car-driving simulation game. Chicago is home to NetherRealm Studios, the developers of the Mortal Kombat serial .

infrastructure

transportation system

antenna photograph of the Jane Byrne Interchange, opened in the 1960s Chicago is a major transportation hub in the United States. It is an crucial part in global distribution, as it is the third-largest inter-modal port in the global after Hong Kong and Singapore. The city of Chicago has a higher than average share of households without a car. In 2015, 26.5 percentage of Chicago households were without a car, and increased slenderly to 27.5 percentage in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percentage in 2016. Chicago averaged 1.12 cars per family in 2016, compared to a home average of 1.8. [ 326 ]

Expressways

Seven mainline and four accessory interstate highways ( 55, 57, 65 ( merely in Indiana ), 80 ( besides in Indiana ), 88, 90 ( besides in Indiana ), 94 ( besides in Indiana ), 190, 290, 294, and 355 ) run through Chicago and its suburb. Segments that link to the city center are named after influential politicians, with three of them named after former U.S. Presidents ( Eisenhower, Kennedy, and Reagan ) and one named after two-time democratic candidate Adlai Stevenson. The Kennedy and Dan Ryan Expressways are the busiest state of matter maintained routes in the entire state of Illinois. [ 327 ]

transit systems

The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) coordinates the operation of the three service boards : CTA, Metra, and Pace .
Greyhound Lines provides inter-city bus military service to and from the city, and Chicago is besides the hub for the Midwest net of Megabus ( North America ) .

passenger rail

Amtrak long distance and commuter rail services originate from Union Station. Chicago is one of the largest hub of passenger rail service in the nation. The services end in San Francisco, Washington, D.C., New York City, Indianapolis, New Orleans, Portland, Seattle, Milwaukee, Quincy, St. Louis, Carbondale, Boston, Grand Rapids, Port Huron, Pontiac, Los Angeles, and San Antonio. An try was made in the early twentieth century to link Chicago with New York City via the Chicago – New York Electric Air Line Railroad. Parts of this were built, but it was never completed .

Bicycle and scooter sharing systems

In July 2013, the bicycle-sharing system Divvy was launched with 750 bikes and 75 dock stations [ 329 ] It is operated by Lyft for the Chicago Department of Transportation. [ 330 ] As of July 2019, Divvy operated 5800 bicycles at 608 stations, covering about all of the city, excluding Pullman, Rosedale, Beverly, Belmont Cragin and Edison Park. [ 331 ] In May 2019, The City of Chicago announced its Chicago ‘s Electric Shared Scooter Pilot Program, scheduled to run from June 15 to October 15. [ 332 ] The program started on June 15 with 10 different water scooter companies, including scoter sharing market leaders Bird, Jump, Lime and Lyft. [ 333 ] Each company was allowed to bring 250 electric scooters, although both Bird and Lime claimed that they experienced a higher demand for their scooters. [ 334 ] The program ended on October 15, with closely 800,000 rides taken. [ 335 ]

Freight rail

Chicago is the largest hub in the railroad track industry. [ 336 ] Six of the seven Class I railroads meet in Chicago, with the exception being the Kansas City Southern Railway. [ 337 ] As of 2002, austere freight train congestion caused trains to take as long to get through the Chicago region as it took to get there from the West Coast of the country ( about 2 days ). [ 338 ] According to U.S. Department of Transportation, the volume of imported and exported goods transported via vilify to, from, or through Chicago is forecast to increase closely 150 percentage between 2010 and 2040. [ 339 ] CREATE, the Chicago Region Environmental and Transportation Efficiency Program, comprises about 70 programs, including crossovers, overpasses and underpasses, that intend to importantly improve the travel rapidly of cargo movements in the Chicago area. [ 340 ]

Airports

Chicago is served by O’Hare International Airport, the populace ‘s busiest airport measured by airline operations, [ 341 ] on the far Northwest Side, and Midway International Airport on the Southwest Side. In 2005, O’Hare was the universe ‘s busiest airport by aircraft movements and the second-busiest by total passenger traffic. [ 342 ] Both O’Hare and Midway are owned and operated by the City of Chicago. Gary/Chicago International Airport and Chicago Rockford International Airport, located in Gary, Indiana and Rockford, Illinois, respectively, can serve as alternative Chicago area airports, however they do not offer as many commercial flights as O’Hare and Midway. In recent years the state of Illinois has been leaning towards building an entirely fresh airport in the Illinois suburbs of Chicago. [ 343 ] The City of Chicago is the world headquarters for United Airlines, the world ‘s third-largest airline .

Port authority

The Port of Chicago consists of several major port facilities within the city of Chicago operated by the Illinois International Port District ( once known as the Chicago Regional Port District ). The cardinal element of the Port District, Calumet Harbor, is maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. [ 344 ]

  • Iroquois Landing Lakefront Terminal: at the mouth of the Calumet River, it includes 100 acres (0.40 km2) of warehouses and facilities on Lake Michigan with over 780,000 square meters (8,400,000 square feet) of storage.
  • Lake Calumet terminal: located at the union of the Grand Calumet River and Little Calumet River 6 miles (9.7 km) inland from Lake Michigan. Includes three transit sheds totaling over 29,000 square meters (310,000 square feet) adjacent to over 900 linear meters (3,000 linear feet) of ship and barge berthing.
  • Grain (14 million bushels) and bulk liquid (800,000 barrels) storage facilities along Lake Calumet.
  • The Illinois International Port district also operates Foreign trade zone No. 22, which extends 60 miles (97 km) from Chicago’s city limits.

Utilities

electricity for most of northerly Illinois is provided by Commonwealth Edison, besides known as ComEd. Their service territory borders Iroquois County to the south, the Wisconsin border to the north, the Iowa edge to the west and the Indiana boundary line to the east. In northern Illinois, ComEd ( a division of Exelon ) operates the greatest number of nuclear generating plants in any US state of matter. Because of this, ComEd reports indicate that Chicago receives about 75 % of its electricity from nuclear power. recently, the city began installing wind turbines on government buildings to promote renewable energy. [ 345 ] [ 346 ] [ 347 ] Natural natural gas is provided by Peoples Gas, a auxiliary of Integrys Energy Group, which is headquartered in Chicago. domestic and industrial neutralize was once incinerated but it is now landfilled, chiefly in the Calumet area. From 1995 to 2008, the city had a aristocratic bag program to divert reclaimable reject from landfills. [ 348 ] Because of low engagement in the blasphemous udder programs, the city began a navigate program for gloomy bin recycling like other cities. This prove successful and amobarbital sodium bins were rolled out across the city. [ 349 ]

Health systems

The Illinois Medical District is on the Near West Side. It includes Rush University Medical Center, ranked as the second best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan area by U.S. News & World Report for 2014–16, the University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago, Jesse Brown VA Hospital, and John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County, one of the busiest injury centers in the nation. [ 350 ] Two of the nation ‘s premier academician medical centers reside in Chicago, including Northwestern Memorial Hospital and the University of Chicago Medical Center. The Chicago campus of Northwestern University includes the Feinberg School of Medicine ; Northwestern Memorial Hospital, which is ranked as the best hospital in the Chicago metropolitan sphere by U.S. News & World Report for 2017–18 ; [ 351 ] the Shirley Ryan AbilityLab ( once named the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago ), which is ranked the best U.S. rehabilitation hospital by U.S. News & World Report ; [ 352 ] the new Prentice Women ‘s Hospital ; and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children ‘s Hospital of Chicago. The University of Illinois College of Medicine at UIC is the moment largest medical school in the United States ( 2,600 students including those at campuses in Peoria, Rockford and Urbana–Champaign ). [ 353 ] In addition, the Chicago Medical School and Loyola University Chicago ‘s Stritch School of Medicine are located in the suburb of North Chicago and Maywood, respectively. The Midwestern University Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine is in Downers Grove. The American Medical Association, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education, American Osteopathic Association, American Dental Association, Academy of General Dentistry, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, American College of Surgeons, American Society for Clinical Pathology, American College of Healthcare Executives, the American Hospital Association and Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association are all based in Chicago .

sister cities

Chicago has 28 baby cities around the world. [ 354 ] Like Chicago, many of them are the chief city of a area that has had boastfully numbers of immigrants settle in Chicago. These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational, and other ties. [ 355 ] To celebrate the sister cities, Chicago hosts a annual festival in Daley Plaza, which features cultural acts and food tastings from the early cities. [ 354 ] In addition, the Chicago Sister Cities program hosts a number of delegating and formal exchanges. [ 354 ] In some cases, these exchanges have led to further informal collaborations, such as the academician relationship between the Buehler Center on Aging, Health & Society at the Feinberg School of Medicine of Northwestern University and the Institute of Gerontology of Ukraine ( primitively of the Soviet Union ), that was originally established as part of the Chicago-Kyiv sister cities program. [ 356 ] Sister cities [ 354 ]

See besides

Notes

  1. a b Mean monthly maximum and minimum ( i.e. the have a bun in the oven highest and lowest temperature readings at any detail during the class or given calendar month ) calculated based on data at said placement from 1991 to 2020 .
  2. ^[155][156] official records for Chicago were kept at versatile locations in downtown from January 1871 to 31 December 1925, University of Chicago from 1 January 1926 to 30 June 1942, Midway Airport from 1 July 1942 to 16 January 1980, and at O’Hare Airport since 17 January 1980 .
  3. ^“Twinned Cities” ( PDF ). ΚΕΔΕ (in Greek). Archived from the original ( PDF ) on January 15, 2016. Chicago is not listed as a sister city on the official tilt of the greek government .

References

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