Pizza – New World Encyclopedia

A homemade pepperoni pizza. Pizza is a dish of italian origin, made with an oven -baked, flat, by and large round bread that is much covered with tomatoes or a tomato-based sauce and mozzarella tall mallow. other toppings are added according to region, culture, or personal predilection. Originating as a part of italian cuisine, the dish has become popular in many different parts of the populace, peculiarly the United States, where numerous varieties have been developed, pizza restaurant chains have flourished, and pizza has become a home pitch item american samoa well as being available as a freeze food ready to bake at home. nowadays, pizza is a symbol of several cultures : Italians, particularly from Naples, are proud of authentic pizza made with local ingredients and following stern guidelines for cooking. In the United States, pizza has iconic condition as a typical american food, cursorily prepared and readily available, and enjoyed by people of all ages at social occasions a well as family meals. The different styles, from places such as New York City and Chicago, reflect the diversity of american culture. Countries throughout the world have adopted pizza as a front-runner food, adding their own variations to make this dish their own .
Delicious and relatively alimentary, particularly when topped with fresh vegetables, pizza is an model of human creativity. Items available to the general public are combined to make something that satisfies people ‘s needs. Its adaptability reflects the dateless diversity of homo life and culture, which then acts as a ceaseless source of happiness.

readiness

Pizza consists of a flatten phonograph record of boodle boodle topped with olive oil, tomatoes, and mozzarella tall mallow ( and in its variations other toppings ), baked promptly, sliced into segments, and served hot. The bottom base of the pizza ( called the “ crust ” in the United States and Canada ) may vary widely according to style : thin as in hand-tossed pizza or Roman pizza, thick as in pan pizza or Chicago-style pizza. It is traditionally plain, but may besides be seasoned with butter, garlic, or herb, or gorge with cheese .
Pizza oven In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the estrus beginning, an electric deck oven, a conveyer belt belt oven or, in the character of more expensive restaurants, a wood- or coal-fired brick oven. On deck ovens, the pizza can be slid into the oven on a long paddle called a peel and baked immediately on the hot bricks or baked on a screen ( a polish metallic grate, typically aluminum ). When making pizza at home, it can be baked on a pizza stone in a regular oven to imitate the effect of a brick oven. Another option is grilled pizza, in which the crust is baked directly on a barbeque grillroom. greek pizza, like Chicago-style pizza, is baked in a pan rather than directly on the bricks of the pizza oven .

history

Pizza has a long and complex history, although pizza as we know it today originated in Italy, specifically in Naples. Bread is one of the oldest disposed foods and dates back at least to the neolithic age. Records of people adding early ingredients to bread in order to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. The Ancient Greeks, for case, had a flat bread called plakous, which was flavored with versatile toppings like herb, onion, and garlic. It is besides said that soldiers of the Persian King, Darius the Great ( 521-486 B.C.E. ) baked a kind of bread flat upon their shields and then covered it with cheese and dates, and in the first hundred B.C.E., Virgil refers to the ancient estimate of bread as an edible denture or trencher for other foods in this extract from the Aeneid :

Their homely fare dispatch’d, the hungry band
Invade their trenchers next, and soon devour,
To mend the scanty meal, their cakes of flour.
Ascanius this observ’d, and smiling said:
“See, we devour the plates on which we fed.”

These flatbreads, like pizza, were from the Mediterranean sphere and other examples of compressed breads that survive to this day from the ancient Mediterranean earth are “ focaccia, ” which may date back equally army for the liberation of rwanda as the Ancient Etruscans ; “ coca, ” which has sweet and savory varieties from Catalonia and the Balearic Islands ; and the greek “ Pita ” or “ Pide ” in Turkish. Similar apartment breads in other parts of the world include the indian “ Paratha ”, the South asian “ Naan, ” and the german “ Flammkuchen. ” The first recorded use of the word “ pizza ” dates from 997 C.E. This comes from a latin text from the township of Gaeta in Southern Italy, stating that a tenant of certain property was to give the bishop of Gaeta duodecim pizze, “ twelve pizza, ” every Christmas day, and another twelve every east wind Sunday. [ 1 ]. The origin of the password pizza has been suggested to be Germanic, related to the English news “ to bite. ” Italy was subject to domination by two Germanic-speaking peoples, the Goths and the Lombards ( Langobards ). Pizza could derive from a Lombardic give voice like in shape to the Old high German bizzo or pizzo, related to words meaning “ morsel. ” This son in the first place meant “ mouthful ” ( what one obtains by “ biting ” ), then later “ part of bread ” ( the typical message of a mouthful ). [ 1 ]

Naples

The invention that gave us the particular flat boodle we call “ pizza ” was the use of tomato as a top. Brought to Europe from the Americas in the sixteenth hundred, the hapless of the area around Naples began to add tomato to their yeast -based flat boodle, and so the pizza was born. The dish gained in popularity, and soon pizza became an drawing card to visitors who ventured into the poorer areas of the city in order to try the local forte .
Antica Pizzeria Port ‘Alba in Naples Until about 1830, pizza was sold from alfresco stands and street vendors out of pizza bakeries, a custom that is still kept alert today by some pizzerie. Antica Pizzeria Port ’ Alba in Naples is wide regarded as the earth ‘s beginning pizzeria. They started producing pizza for peddlers in 1738, but expanded to a pizza restaurant with chairs and tables in 1830, and placid serve pizza from the same premises today. [ 2 ] A description of pizza in Naples around 1830 is given by the french writer Alexandre Dumas, père in his work Le Corricolo, in which he wrote that pizza was the lone food of the humble people in Naples during winter, and that “ in Naples pizza is flavored with vegetable oil, lard, tallow, cheese, tomato, or anchovies. ” [ 3 ] Purists, like the celebrated pizzeria Da Michele ( establish 1870 ) consider there to be only two true pizzas—the “ Marinara ” and the “ Margherita ” —and that is all they serve. [ 4 ] The marinara is the oldest and has a top of tomato, oregano, garlic, extra virgo olive anoint, and normally basil. It was named marinara not, as many believe, because it has seafood on it ( which it does not ), but because it was the food the fishermen ate when they returned home from fishing trips in the Bay of Naples. The Margherita is attributed to baker Raffaele Esposito. In 1889, he baked three unlike pizza for the visit of King Umberto I and Queen Margherita of Savoy. The Queen ‘s favorite was a pizza evoking the colors of the italian flag—green ( basil leaves ), white ( mozzarella ), and crimson ( tomatoes ). This combination was named Pizza Margherita in her award. [ 5 ] today, there are many celebrated pizzerias in Naples where these traditional pizza can be found ; most of them are located in the ancient historic center field of Naples .

United States

Lombardi ‘s Pizza at 32 Spring Street in Little Italy, Manhattan Pizza first made its appearance in the United States with the arrival of italian immigrants in the late-nineteenth century. In cities with large italian populations, such as San Francisco, Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia pizza was first sold on the streets of italian neighborhoods. The first gear “ official ” pizzeria is by and large believed to have been founded by Gennaro Lombardi in Little Italy in New York. Gennaro Lombardi opened a grocery store storehouse in 1897 which late was established as the first pizzeria in America in 1905 with New York ‘s issue of the mercantile license. An employee of his, Antonio Totonno Pero, began making pizza for the store to sell that same year. The price for an entire pizza was five cents, but since many people could not afford the cost of a unharmed proto-indo european, they could rather say how much they could pay and they were given a slit corresponding to the sum offered. In 1924, Totonno left Lombardi ‘s to open his own pizzeria on Coney Island called Totonno ‘s. While the master Lombardi ‘s closed its doors in 1984, it was reopened in 1994 merely down the street and is run by Lombardi ‘s grandson. Pizza was brought to the Trenton area of New Jersey with Joe ‘s Tomato Pies opening in 1910, followed soon by Papa ‘s Tomato Pies in 1912. In 1936, Delorenzo ‘s Tomato Pies was opened. While Joe ‘s Tomato Pies has since closed, both Papa ‘s and Delorenzo ‘s have been run by the lapp families since their openings and remain popular in the area. Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven, Connecticut, was another early pizzeria which opened in 1925 ( after the owner served pies from local carts and bakeries for 20 to 25 years ), and is celebrated for its New Haven-style clam proto-indo european. Frank Pepe ‘s nephew Sal Consiglio opened a competing store, Sally ‘s, on the other end of the block, in 1938. Both establishments are still run by descendants of the original family. The D’Amore syndicate introduced pizza to Los Angeles in 1939. anterior to the 1940s, pizza consumption was limited by and large to italian immigrants and their descendants. The international breakthrough came after World War II. Allied troops occupying Italy, tire of their rations, were constantly on the lookout for good food. They discovered the pizzeria, and local anesthetic bakers were distressed to satisfy the demand from the soldiers. The american troops involved in the italian political campaign took their admiration for the cup of tea back home, touted by “ veterans ranging from the lowliest individual to Dwight D. Eisenhower. ” [ 6 ]
Pizza in box for delivery The modern pizza diligence, popular throughout the United States and with it uniquely american character, was born in the Midwestern United States. [ 6 ] Ric Riccardo pioneered what became known as the bass cup of tea pizza when, in 1943, he and Ike Sewell opened Pizzeria Uno in Chicago, and a coevals late, Tom Monaghan launched what soon became known as Domino ‘s Pizza, credited by some for popularizing free home pitch. With its rising popularity, chain restaurants moved in. today, the American pizza business is dominated by companies that specialize in pizza delivery .

Nutrients

Some pizza can be very high in salt and adipose tissue and concerns have been raised about the negative effect these pizzas can have on people ’ s health. For case, Pizza Hut has come under criticism for the high salt content of some of their meals, which were found to contain more than doubly the day by day recommend amount of salt for an adult. [ 7 ] however, it should besides be noted that commercially made fast-food pizza is very different from well-made italian pizza, particularly from a good restaurant which is concerned with using lone commodity ingredients, or even more thus in a homemade pizza. The salt and saturated adipose tissue contented of a homemade pizza is normally far less if using original recipes. Mozzarella cheese is less fatty than many early cheeses. Feta cheese, which has an even lower saturated-fat contented, is often used in homemade-pizza recipes. There is besides the hypothesis of including other healthy ingredients in the toppings, such as fresh tomatoes, bell peppers, mushrooms, spinach, zucchini, eggplant, and so forth .

cultural significance

italian, and in particular Neapolitans, take their pizza very seriously. A bill was brought ahead Parliament to safeguard the “ traditional italian pizza, ” specifying permissible ingredients and methods of processing. [ 8 ] only pizzas which followed these guidelines could be called “ traditional italian pizza, ” at least in Italy. [ 9 ] Italy has besides requested that the European Union safeguard some traditional italian pizza, such as “ Margherita ” and “ Marinara ”. [ 10 ] The European Union enacted a protect appointment of origin system in the 1990s .

regional variations

italian pizza

authentic Neapolitan pizza margherita, the basis for most kinds of pizza The pizza bases in Naples are delicate and ductile, but in Rome they prefer a flimsy and crisp basis. Another popular form of pizza in Italy is “ pizza alabama taglio, ” which is pizza baked in rectangular trays with a wide variety of toppings and sold by weight .

Neapolitan pizza (pizza napoletana)

authentic Neapolitan pizza are made with local ingredients such as San Marzano tomatoes, which grow on the volcanic plains to the south of Mount Vesuvius, and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, made with the milk from water buffalo raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio in a semi-wild submit ( this mozzarella is protected with its own european protected appellation of beginning ). genuine Neapolitan pizza dough consists of italian wheat flour ( type 0 or 00, or a assortment of both ), natural Neapolitan yeast or brewer ’ south yeast, salt, and water. [ 11 ] For proper results, solid flour with high protein capacity ( as used for bread-making rather than cakes ) must be used. The boodle must be kneaded by pass or with a low-speed mixer. After the rising procedure, the dough must be formed by bridge player without the help of a rolling pin or early mechanical device, and may be no more than 3 millimeters ( 0.12 in ) slurred. The pizza must be baked for 60 to 90 seconds in a 485 °C ( 905 °F ) stone oven with an oak-wood ardor. When cooked, it should be crispy, tender, and fragrant. Neapolitan pizza has been given the condition of a “ guaranteed traditional peculiarity ” in Italy. This allows alone three official variants : pizza marinara, which is made with tomato, garlic, oregano, and extra-virgin olive petroleum ( although most Neapolitan pizzeria besides add basil to the marinara ) ; Margherita, made with tomato, sliced mozzarella, basil, and extra-virgin olive vegetable oil ; and pizza Margherita excess, made with tomato, buffalo mozzarella from Campania in fillets, basil, and extra-virgin olive anoint .
Pizza al taglio in Rome in Rome

Read more: Who Invented Pizza?

Lazio style ( Roman )

Pizza in Lazio ( Rome ), deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as in many other parts of Italy is available in two different styles :

  • Take-away shops sell pizza rustica or pizza al taglio. This pizza is cooked in long, rectangular baking pans and relatively thick (one to two centimeters). The crust is similar to that of an English muffin, and the pizza is often cooked in an electric oven. It is usually cut with scissors or a knife and sold by weight.
  • In pizza restaurants (pizzerias), pizza is served in a dish in its traditional round shape. It has a thin, crisp base quite different to the thicker and softer Neapolitan style base. It is usually cooked in a wood-fired oven, giving the pizza its unique flavor and texture. In Rome, a pizza napoletana is topped with tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, and oil. Thus, what in Naples is called pizza romana, in Rome is called pizza napoletana.

other types of Lazio-style pizza admit :

  • Pizza romana (in Naples): tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, oregano, oil;
  • Pizza viennese: tomato, mozzarella, German sausage, oregano, oil;
  • Pizza capricciosa (“capricious pizza”): mozzarella, tomato, mushrooms, artichokes, cooked ham, olives, oil (in Rome, prosciutto raw ham is used and half a hard-boiled egg is added);
  • Pizza quattro stagioni (“four seasons pizza”): same ingredients for the capricciosa, but ingredients not mixed;
  • Pizza quattro formaggi (“four cheese pizza”): tomatoes, mozzarella, stracchino, fontina, gorgonzola (sometimes ricotta can be swapped for one of the last three);
  • Sicilian-style pizza has its toppings baked directly into the crust. An authentic recipe uses neither cheese nor anchovies. “Sicilian” pizza in the United States is typically a different variety of product made with a thick crust characterized by a rectangular shape and topped with tomato sauce and cheese (and optional toppings). Pizza Hut’s “Sicilian Pizza,” introduced in 1994, is not an authentic example of the style as only garlic, basil, and oregano are mixed into the crust;
  • White pizza (pizza bianca) uses no tomato sauce, often substituting pesto or dairy products such as sour cream. In Rome, the term pizza bianca refers to a type of bread topped with olive oil, salt and, occasionally, rosemary leaves. It is also a Roman style to top the white pizza with figs, the result called pizza e fichi (pizza with figs);
  • Ripieno or calzone is a pizza in the form of a half moon, sometimes filled with ricotta, salami, and mozzarella; it can be either fried or oven baked.

Non-Italian types of pizza

In the twentieth century, pizza became an international food, with the toppings varying well in accord with local tastes. These pizza consist of the same basic purpose but include an exceptionally diverse choice of ingredients .

United States

ascribable to the influence of italian and greek immigrants in american acculturation, the United States has developed a boastfully number of regional forms of pizza, many bearing alone a casual resemblance to the italian original. During the latter half of the twentieth hundred, pizza in the United States became an iconic smasher of considerable popularity. Often, “ Americanized ” foods such as barbecued chicken and bacon cheeseburgers are used to create new types of pizza. mexican pizza, or greaser pizza, is besides democratic. American pizza often has vegetable anoint or bowdlerize ( much, but not always, olive oil ) mixed into the dough ; this is not as common in italian recipes. This can range from a small amount in relatively tend doughs, such as New York style, to a very bombastic amount in some recipes for Chicago-style deep-dish dough. In summation, American pizza ( at least thin-crust ) is much made with a very high-gluten flour ( much 13 to 14-percent protein content ) of the type besides used to make bagels ; this type of flour allows the dough to be stretched rather thinly without tearing, like to strudel or phyllo boodle. diverse toppings may be added, most typically :

  • Tomato sauce usually replaces the tomato mixture used on Italian-style pizzas, and is usually a fairly heavily seasoned, smooth sauce with a low water content. On some variants without tomatoes, pesto, alfredo, and barbecue sauce are also used.
  • Cheese, usually mozzarella but also provolone, cheddar, parmesan, or a blend of other cheeses.
  • Fruits and vegetables such as garlic, artichoke hearts, eggplant, olives, capers, onions, spinach, tomatoes, bell peppers, green chili peppers, jalapeños, banana peppers, and pineapple.
  • Fungi, usually mushrooms and rarely truffles.
  • Meat, such as sausage, (pepperoni, salami, or Italian sausage), ham, bacon, ground beef, and chicken.
  • Seafood such as anchovies, tuna, salmon, and shrimp.
  • Herbs and spices such as basil, oregano, and black pepper.
  • Nuts such as cashews, pistachios, and pine nuts.
  • Oils such as olive oil, walnut oil, and truffle oil.

A homemade pizza exhibiting a overplus of toppings common to american pizza In some pizza recipes the tomato sauce is omitted ( term “ blank pizza ” ), or replaced with another sauce ( normally garlic butter, but sauces can besides be made with spinach or onions ). numerous variations exist across the United States. These can be bought in restaurants and pizzeria, or baked at home plate. [ 12 ] Following are some of the more long-familiar styles :

New York

New York-style pizza is a style originally developed in New York City by immigrants from Naples. It is frequently sold in liberally sized, thin, and elastic slices. It is traditionally hand-tossed, moderate on sauce, and reasonably covered with cheese basically amounting to a much larger version of the Neapolitan style. The slices are sometimes corrode folded in half, or flush stacked, as its size and tractability may otherwise make it unwieldy to eat by hand. This dash of pizza dominates in the Northeastern states, and is very similar to the basic style common through the United States known simply as “ pizza. ” many pizza establishments in the New York metropolitan sphere offer two varieties of pizza : “ Neapolitan, ” or “ regular, ” made with a relatively dilute, circular crust, and served in wedge-shaped slices, and “ Sicilian, ” or “ square, ” made with a thick, orthogonal crust, and served in big, rectangular slices .
White clam pizza

New Haven

New Haven-style pizza is democratic in southerly Connecticut. It has a thin crust that varies between chewy and tender, depending on the particular establishment. The default interpretation is a “ white ” pizza topped with only garlic and hard cheeses ; customers who want tomato sauce or mozzarella cheese have to ask for them explicitly. A pizza has a very dark, “ scorched ” crisp crust that offers a classifiable bitter season, which can be offset by the pleasantness of tomatoes or other toppings .

Greek pizza

greek pizza is a variation democratic in New England. Its diagnose comes from the style of pizzerias owned by greek immigrants. It has a thick, chewier crust and is baked in a pan in the pizza oven, alternatively of directly on the bricks. Plain olive petroleum is a common part of the top, a well as being liberally used to grease the pans and crisp the crust. Variations in early parts of the nation include using feta tall mallow, Kalamata olives, and Greek herbs such as marjoram .
Chicago-style deep-dish pizza

Chicago

Chicago-style pizza, or deep-dish pizza, contains a crust which is formed up the sides of a deep-dish pan. It reverses the ordering of some ingredients, using crust, tall mallow, filling, then sauce on clear. Some versions ( normally referred to as “ stuffed ” ) have two layers of crust with the sauce on top. Chicago-style thin-crust pizza has a thin crust than Chicago-style cryptic dish, and is baked flat rather than in a deep-dish pan. The crust is flimsy and firm adequate to have a noticeable grind, unlike a New York-style pizza, even thickly enough to be piano and doughy on the top. The crust is constantly topped with a liberal quantity of southern-Italian style tomato sauce, which is normally quite herb tea or highly spiced, and typically contains no visible chunks of tomato. Next, a layer of toppings is added, and a layer of mozzarella tall mallow which frequently separates from the bottom crust due to the measure of tomato sauce. Chicago-style thin-crust pizza are cut into three-to-four-inch squares, besides known as “ party cut, ” as opposed to a “ pie switch off ” into wedges. The small size of the squares makes it unnecessary to fold the slices. Chicago-style pizza is prevailing throughout the Midwestern United States .

St. Louis

St. Louis-style pizza is a thin crust variant that is popular in and around St. Louis, Missouri. The most luminary feature of St. Louis-style pizza is the distinctively St. Louisan Provel cheese used rather of ( or rarely in addition to ) mozzarella cheese. The toppings normally consist of clean ingredients, sliced rather of diced. It is coarse for the pizza to be topped with boastfully pieces of onion, round slices of bell pepper, and wide strips of bacon. The crust is sparse adequate that it becomes identical crunchy in the oven and is sometimes compared to a firecracker. tied though the crust is round, it is always cut into little squares .

California

California-style pizza refers to pizza with non-traditional ingredients, specially those that use a considerable amount of fresh produce. A Thai -inspired chicken pizza with peanut sauce, bean sprouts, and shaved carrots is a popular discrepancy in California-style pizza restaurants, as are pizzas that use chicken and barbeque sauce as toppings .

Other

hawaiian pizza has canadian bacon ( or sliced overact ) and pineapple toppings with mozzarella cheese. This type of pizza is particularly popular in the westerly United States, and is besides a democratic top combination in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, but notably not in Hawaii. This type is besides common within the EU, where it is known as “ pizza Hawaii. ” Taco pizza has ingredients normally associated with taco, such as ; lettuce, shredded beef or ground beef, chopped tomatoes, avocado, corn chips, cheddar cheese, sour cream, and greaser sauce. Grilled pizza, invented in Providence, Rhode Island, uses a reasonably thin crust cooked on a grill ; the toppings are placed on the broil side after the pizza has cooked a while and flipped over. english muffin, french boodle pizza, and pizza bagels are common convenience pizza made at home in an oven or toaster, normally with a simpleton clear of tomato sauce, sliced or shred cheese, and possibly pepperoni. french bread pizza is sometimes available commercially as a freeze meal .
Cooked from freeze pizza topped with tall mallow and tomato sauce

Frozen and ready-to-bake pizzas

Pizza is besides found as a frozen food in grocery store stores and supermarkets. A considerable sum of food-technology inventiveness has gone into the creation of palatable freeze pizza. The independent challenges include preventing the sauce from combining with the boodle and producing a crust that can be freeze and reheated without becoming rigid. Modified corn starch is normally used as a moisture barrier between the sauce and crust. traditionally, the boodle is slightly pre-baked and other ingredients are besides sometimes pre-cooked. More recently, frozen pizza with completely raw ingredients have besides begun to appear, as have those with “ self-rising ” crusts. many grocery stores and supermarkets besides sell fresh, ready-to-bake pizza .

Australia

Pizza is democratic in Australia, where a significant percentage of the population is of italian descent. The common italian varieties are available, but there is besides the “ australian, ” or “ australiana, ” which has the usual tomato-sauce infrastructure and mozzarella cheese with bacon and egg ( seen as quintessentially australian breakfast fare ). Prawns are besides sometimes used on this style of pizza. In the 1980s, australian pizza shops and restaurants began selling “ epicure pizza, ” basically pizzas with upmarket ingredients such as salmon, dill, bocconcini, tiger prawns, and even such toppings as kangaroo, emu, and crocodile meats. wood-fired pizza, cooked in an impressive-looking ceramic oven heated by woodwind fuel, are besides popular .

Brazil

Pizza is a very popular dish in Brazil, brought by italian immigrants to that nation. Sao Paulo, a city that calls itself ‘The Pizza Capital of the World ‘, hosting more than 6,000 pizza establishments and where more than 1.4 million pizza are consumed every day. [ 13 ]. typically, pizza follow the Neapolitan kind, rather than the Roman one, being slurred and more doughy .

India

Pizza has emerged as a popular fast food in indian urban areas, particularly among youth. Pizza outlets serve pizza with several Indian-based toppings, such as Tandoori chicken and bungalow cheese ( Known as Paneer in India ). indian pizza are broadly more spicy compared to their western counterparts, in decree to suit indian taste. Along with indian variations, more ceremonious pizza are besides available .

Notes

References ISBN links digest NWE through referral fees

  • Karmel, Elizabeth, and Bob Blumer. Pizza on the Grill: 100 Feisty Fire-roasted Recipes for Pizza & More. Newtown, CT: Taunton Press, 2008. ISBN 9781600850066
  • Katz, Solomon H., and William Woys Weaver. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. New York, NY: Scribner, 2003. ISBN 9780684805689
  • McNair, James. Pizza. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1987. ISBN 9780877014812
  • Morgan, Diane, and Tony Gemignani, Pizza: More than 60 Recipes for Delicious Homemade Pizza. Chronicle Books, 2005. ISBN 0811845540
  • Puck, Wolfgang, and Steven Rothfeld. Wolfgang Puck’s Pizza, Pasta and More! New York, NY: Random House, 2000. ISBN 9780679438878
  • Stucchi, Lorenza De’ Medici, and Chuck Williams. Pizza. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1993. ISBN 9780783502298

All links retrieved March 29, 2019.

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