Kitchen – Wikipedia

Space chiefly used for planning and storage of food

A kitchen is a room or part of a room used for cook and food readiness in a harp or in a commercial constitution. A modern middle-class residential kitchen is typically equipped with a stove, a sink with hot and cold run water, a refrigerator, and worktops and kitchen cabinets arranged according to a modular design. many households have a microwave oven, a dishwasher, and other electric appliances. The main functions of a kitchen are to store, prepare and cook food ( and to complete relate tasks such as dishwashing ). The room or sphere may besides be used for dining ( or humble meals such as breakfast ), entertaining and laundry. The design and structure of kitchens is a huge marketplace all over the global. commercial kitchens are found in restaurants, cafeterias, hotels, hospitals, educational and workplace facilities, army barracks, and similar establishments. These kitchens are broadly larger and equipped with bigger and more heavy-duty equipment than a residential kitchen. For model, a large restaurant may have a huge walk-in refrigerator and a big commercial dishwasher machine. In some instances, commercial kitchen equipment such as commercial sinks is used in family settings as it offers ease of use for food readiness and high lastingness. [ 1 ] [ 2 ]

In develop countries, commercial kitchens are broadly subject to populace health laws. They are inspected sporadically by public-health officials, and forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. [ citation needed ]

history

Middle Ages

The roasting spit in this european Renaissance kitchen was driven automatically by a propeller—the blacken cloverleaf-like structure in the upper berth leave early chivalric european longhouses had an candid fire under the highest detail of the building. The “ kitchen area ” was between the entrance and the fireplace. In affluent homes, there was typically more than one kitchen. In some homes, there were upwards of three kitchens. The kitchens were divided based on the types of food prepared in them. [ 3 ] The kitchen might be distinguish from the big hall due to the smoke from cooking fires and the gamble the fires may get out of command. [ 4 ] Few medieval kitchens survive as they were “ notoriously ephemeron structures ”. [ 5 ]
Kitchen interior, circa 1565

Colonial America

In Connecticut, as in other colonies of New England during Colonial America, kitchens were frequently built as branch rooms and were located behind the parlor and keeping room or boom room. One early record of a kitchen is found in the 1648 inventory of the estate of a John Porter of Windsor, Connecticut. The inventory lists goods in the house “ over the kittchin ” and “ in the kittchin ”. The items listed in the kitchen were : silver spoons, pewter, brass, iron, arms, ammunition, cannabis, flax and “ early implements about the room ”. [ 6 ]

rationalization

A stepstone was the kitchen designed in Frankfurt by Margarethe Schütte-Lihotzky. Working-class women frequently worked in factories to ensure the family ‘s survival, as the men ‘s wages much did not suffice. Social housing projects led to the next milestone : the Frankfurt Kitchen. Developed in 1926, this kitchen measured 1.9 by 3.4 metres ( 6 foot 3 in by 11 ft 2 in ). It was built for two purposes : to optimize kitchen workplace to reduce fudge time and lower the cost of building decently equipped kitchens. The blueprint, created by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, was the result of detail time-motion studies and interviews with future tenants to identify what they needed from their kitchens. Schütte-Lihotzky ‘s fit kitchen was built in some 10,000 apartments in the house projects erected in Frankfurt in the 1930s. [ 7 ]

Materials

The Frankfurt Kitchen of 1926 was made of several materials depending on the application. The modern built-in kitchens of nowadays use particle boards or MDF, decorated with a variety of materials and finishes including wood veneers, lacquer, glass, melamine, laminate, ceramic and eco gloss. very few manufacturers produce home built-in kitchens from stainless steel sword. Until the 1950s, steel kitchens were used by architects, but this fabric was displaced by the cheaper particle display panel panels sometimes decorated with a steel open .

domestic kitchen plan

Beecher ‘s “ model kitchen ” brought early ergonomic principles to the home Domestic ( or residential ) kitchen design is a relatively holocene discipline. The beginning ideas to optimize the work in the kitchen go second to Catharine Beecher ‘s A Treatise on Domestic Economy ( 1843, revised and republished together with her sister Harriet Beecher Stowe as The American Woman’s Home in 1869 ). Beecher ‘s “ model kitchen ” propagated for the first time a systematic design based on early ergonomics. The design included unconstipated shelves on the walls, ample workspace, and dedicate storehouse areas for versatile food items. Beecher flush separated the functions of preparing food and cook it wholly by moving the stove into a compartment adjacent to the kitchen. Christine Frederick published from 1913 a series of articles on “ New Household Management ” in which she analyzed the kitchen following Taylorist principles of efficiency, presented detailed time-motion studies, and derived a kitchen design from them. Her ideas were taken up in the 1920s by architects in Germany and Austria, most notably Bruno Taut, Erna Meyer, Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky and Benita Otte, who designed the first base fitted kitchen for the Haus am Horn, which was completed in 1923. [ 8 ] Similar design principles were employed by Schütte-Lihotzky for her celebrated Frankfurt kitchen, designed for Ernst May ‘s Römerstadt, a social house project in Frankfurt, in 1927. While this “ knead kitchen ” and variants derived from it were a capital achiever for tenement buildings, homeowners had different demands and did not want to be constrained by a 6.4-square-metre ( 69 sq foot ) kitchen. Nevertheless, the kitchen design was by and large ad-hoc following the whims of the architect. In the U.S., the “ small Homes Council ”, since 1993 the “ Building Research Council ”, of the School of Architecture of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign was founded in 1944 with the goal to improve the state of the artwork in family construction, in the first place with an emphasis on standardization for cost reduction. It was there that the notion of the kitchen work triangle was formalized : the three independent functions in a kitchen are storage, planning, and cook ( which Catharine Beecher had already recognized ), and the places for these functions should be arranged in the kitchen in such a way that knead at one station does not interfere with work at another identify, the distance between these places is not unnecessarily large, and no obstacles are in the means. A natural placement is a triangle, with the refrigerator, the sink, and the stove at a vertex each. This observation led to a few common kitchen forms, normally characterized by the placement of the kitchen cabinets and dip, stove, and refrigerator :

  • A single-file kitchen (also known as a one-way galley or a straight-line kitchen) has all of these along one wall; the work triangle degenerates to a line. This is not optimal, but often the only solution if space is restricted. This may be common in an attic space that is being converted into a living space, or a studio apartment.
  • The double-file kitchen (or two-way galley) has two rows of cabinets on opposite walls, one containing the stove and the sink, the other the refrigerator. This is the classical work kitchen and makes efficient use of space.
  • In the L-kitchen, the cabinets occupy two adjacent walls. Again, the work triangle is preserved, and there may even be space for an additional table at a third wall, provided it does not intersect the triangle.
  • A U-kitchen has cabinets along three walls, typically with the sink at the base of the “U”. This is a typical work kitchen, too, unless the two other cabinet rows are short enough to place a table on the fourth wall.
  • A G-kitchen has cabinets along three walls, like the U-kitchen, and also a partial fourth wall, often with a double basin sink at the corner of the G shape. The G-kitchen provides additional work and storage space and can support two work triangles. A modified version of the G-kitchen is the double-L, which splits the G into two L-shaped components, essentially adding a smaller L-shaped island or peninsula to the L-kitchen.

A parry kitchen

  • The block kitchen (or island) is a more recent development, typically found in open kitchens. Here, the stove or both the stove and the sink are placed where an L or U kitchen would have a table, in a free-standing “island”, separated from the other cabinets. In a closed room, this does not make much sense, but in an open kitchen, it makes the stove accessible from all sides such that two persons can cook together, and allows for contact with guests or the rest of the family since the cook does not face the wall any more. Additionally, the kitchen island’s counter-top can function as an overflow surface for serving buffet-style meals or sitting down to eat breakfast and snacks.

In the 1980s, there was a backlash against industrial kitchen design and cabinets with people installing a mix of work surfaces and rid stand furniture, led by kitchen designer Johnny Grey and his concept of the “ disqualify kitchen ”. Modern kitchens often have adequate informal space to allow for people to eat in it without having to use the formal dine room. such areas are called “ breakfast areas ”, “ breakfast nook ” or “ breakfast bars ” if outer space is integrated into a kitchen counter. Kitchens with adequate space to eat in are sometimes called “ eat-in kitchens ”. During the 2000s, flat pack kitchens were popular for people doing DIY renovating on a budget. The apartment pack kitchens industry makes it easy to put together and mix and matching doors, bench tops and cabinets. In flat pack systems, many components can be interchanged. In larger homes, where the owners might have meals prepared by a family staff extremity, the home plate may have a chef’s kitchen. This typically differs from a normal domestic kitchen by having multiple ovens ( possibly of different kinds for different kinds of cooking ), multiple sinks, and warming drawers to keep food heated between cooking and service .

early types

restaurant and canteen kitchens found in hotels, hospitals, educational and workplace facilities, army barracks, and exchangeable institutions are broadly ( in developed countries ) subject to public health laws. They are inspected sporadically by public health officials and forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. canteen kitchens ( and castle kitchens ) were often the places where new technology was used first. For case, Benjamin Thompson ‘s “ energy saving stave ”, an early 19th-century amply closed iron stove using one fire to heat several pots, was designed for bombastic kitchens ; another thirty years passed before they were adapted for domestic use.

As of 2017, restaurant kitchens normally have tiled walls and floors and use stainless sword for early surfaces ( workbench, but besides doorway and drawer fronts ) because these materials are durable and easily to clean. professional kitchens are frequently equipped with gas stoves, as these admit cooks to regulate the heat more promptly and more finely than electric stoves. Some especial appliances are typical for professional kitchens, such as large install deep fryers, steamers, or a bain-marie. The firm food and convenience food trends have changed the manner in which restaurant kitchens operate. Some of these type restaurants may lone “ finish ” public toilet food that is delivered to them or barely reheat completely prepare meals. At the most they may grill a hamburger or a steak. But in the early twenty-first century, c-stores ( public toilet stores ) are attracting greater market share by performing more food cooking on-site and better customer service than some fast food outlets. [ 9 ] The kitchens in railway dining cars have presented particular challenges : distance is limited, and, personnel must be able to serve a great phone number of meals quickly. specially in the early history of railways, this compulsory flawless organization of processes ; in modern times, the microwave oven and prepared meals have made this job much easier. Kitchens aboard ships, aircraft and sometimes railcars are often referred to as galleys. On yachts, galleys are frequently cramped, with one or two burners fueled by an LP flatulence bottle. Kitchens on cruise ships or large warships, by line, are comparable in every respect with restaurants or canteen kitchens. On passenger airliners, the kitchen is reduced to a pantry. The crew ‘s function is to heat and serve in-flight meals delivered by a provide company. An extreme kind of the kitchen occurs in space, e.g., aboard a Space Shuttle ( where it is besides called the “ galley ” ) or the International Space Station. The astronauts ‘ food is broadly completely disposed, dehydrated, and sealed in fictile pouches before the escape. The kitchen is reduced to a rehydration and heating module. Outdoor areas where food is prepared are generally not considered kitchens, even though an outdoor sphere set up for regular food preparation, for exemplify when camp, might be referred to as an “ outdoor kitchen ”. An outdoor kitchen at a campsite might be placed near a well, water pump, or urine tapdance, and it might provide tables for food readiness and fudge ( using portable camp stoves ). Some campsite kitchen areas have a large tank car of propane connected to burners so that campers can cook their meals. military camps and alike temp settlements of nomads may have dedicated kitchen tents, which have a vent to enable cooking roll of tobacco to escape. In schools where home economics, food technology ( previously known as “ domestic skill “ ), or culinary arts are teach, there are typically a series of kitchens with multiple equipment ( like in some respects to laboratories ) entirely for the function of teaching. These consist of multiple workstations, each with its own oven, sink, and kitchen utensils, where the teacher can show students how to prepare food and cook it .

By region

China

Kitchens in China are called chúfáng ( 厨房 ). More than 3000 years ago, the ancient Chinese used the ding for cooking food. The dent was developed into the wok and pot used today. many chinese people believe that there is a Kitchen God who watches over the kitchen for the syndicate. According to this impression, the deity returns to heaven to give a report to the Jade Emperor per annum about this family demeanor. Every chinese New Year Eve, families will gather together to pray for the kitchen god to give a good report to heaven and wish him to bring back good news on the fifth day of the New Year. The most park cook equipment in chinese kin kitchens and restaurant kitchens are woks, steamer baskets and pots. The fuel or heat resource was besides an significant proficiency to commit the cook skills. traditionally chinese were using wood or straw as the fuel to cook food. A chinese chef had to master flare and heat radiation to reliably prepare traditional recipes. taiwanese cooking will use a pot or wok for pan-fry, stir-frying, deep frying or boil .

Japan

Nagasaki, Japan. reconstruction of a 1832 japanese kitchen in Dejima Kitchens in Japan are called Daidokoro ( 台所 ; light up. “ kitchen ” ). Daidokoro is the place where food is prepared in a japanese family. Until the Meiji era, a kitchen was besides called kamado ( かまど ; lighted. stave ) and there are many sayings in the japanese speech that involve kamado as it was considered the symbol of a house and the term could evening be used to mean “ family ” or “ family ” ( similar to the English word “ hearth ” ). When separating a class, it was called Kamado wo wakeru, which means “ divide the stave ”. Kamado wo yaburu ( alight. “ break the stove ” ) means that the kin was bankrupt .

India

In India, a kitchen is called a “ Rasoi ” ( in Hindi\Sanskrit ) or a “ Swayampak ghar ” in Marathi, and there exist many other names for it in the assorted regional languages. many different methods of cooking exist across the state, and the structure and the materials used in constructing kitchens have varied depending on the region. For exercise, in the union and cardinal India, cooking used to be carried out in clay ovens called “ Chulha ” s, fired by wood, coal or dried cow dung. In households where members observed vegetarianism, separate kitchens were maintained to cook and store vegetarian and non-vegetarian food. religious families frequently treat the kitchen as a sacred space. indian kitchens are built on an amerind architectural science called vastushastra. The indian kitchen vastu is of farthermost importance while designing kitchens in India. contemporary architects besides follow the norms of vastushastra while designing indian kitchens across the world. While many kitchens belonging to poor families continue to use clay stoves and the older forms of fuel, the urban middle and upper classes normally have boast stoves with cylinders or piped accelerator attached. Electric cooktops are rarer since they consume a great conduct of electricity, but microwave ovens are gaining popularity in urban households and commercial enterprises. indian kitchens are besides supported by biogas and solar energy as fuel. World ‘s largest solar energy [ 10 ] kitchen is built in India. In association with government bodies, India is encouraging domestic biogas plants to support the kitchen system .

See besides

References

further recitation

Media related to Kitchens at Wikimedia Commons