Pizza – New World Encyclopedia

A homemade pepperoni pizza. Pizza is a smasher of italian origin, made with an oven -baked, flat, generally round bread that is much covered with tomatoes or a tomato-based sauce and mozzarella cheese. other toppings are added according to area, culture, or personal predilection. Originating as a part of italian cuisine, the serve has become popular in many unlike parts of the world, particularly the United States, where numerous varieties have been developed, pizza restaurant chains have flourished, and pizza has become a home delivery item vitamin a well as being available as a freeze food ready to bake at home. nowadays, pizza is a symbol of several cultures : Italians, particularly from Naples, are gallant of authentic pizza made with local ingredients and following nonindulgent guidelines for training. In the United States, pizza has iconic status as a typical american food, cursorily prepared and readily available, and enjoyed by people of all ages at social occasions deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as family meals. The different styles, from places such as New York City and Chicago, reflect the diversity of american culture. Countries throughout the world have adopted pizza as a favorite food, adding their own variations to make this dish their own .
Delicious and relatively alimentary, peculiarly when topped with fresh vegetables, pizza is an case of human creativity. Items available to the general public are combined to make something that satisfies people ‘s needs. Its adaptability reflects the dateless diverseness of human liveliness and culture, which then acts as a ceaseless beginning of happiness.


Pizza consists of a flatten harrow of boodle dough topped with olive oil, tomatoes, and mozzarella cheese ( and in its variations early toppings ), baked quickly, sliced into segments, and served hot. The bed establish of the pizza ( called the “ crust ” in the United States and Canada ) may vary widely according to style : thin as in hand-tossed pizza or Roman pizza, chummy as in pan pizza or Chicago-style pizza. It is traditionally plain, but may besides be seasoned with butter, garlic, or herb, or stuff with cheese .
Pizza oven In restaurants, pizza can be baked in an oven with stone bricks above the heat source, an electric pack of cards oven, a conveyer belt knock oven or, in the event of more expensive restaurants, a wood- or coal-fired brick oven. On deck ovens, the pizza can be slid into the oven on a long paddle called a peel off and baked directly on the hot bricks or baked on a filmdom ( a round metallic element eat into, typically aluminum ). When making pizza at home, it can be baked on a pizza rock in a regular oven to imitate the effect of a brick oven. Another option is grilled pizza, in which the crust is baked immediately on a barbecue grill. greek pizza, like Chicago-style pizza, is baked in a pan rather than directly on the bricks of the pizza oven .


Pizza has a farseeing and complex history, although pizza as we know it today originated in Italy, specifically in Naples. Bread is one of the oldest train foods and dates bet on at least to the neolithic. Records of people adding other ingredients to bread in order to make it more flavorful can be found throughout ancient history. The Ancient Greeks, for exemplar, had a flat bread called plakous, which was flavored with assorted toppings like herb, onion, and garlic. It is besides said that soldiers of the Persian King, Darius the Great ( 521-486 B.C.E. ) baked a kind of bread apartment upon their shields and then covered it with tall mallow and dates, and in the inaugural hundred B.C.E., Virgil refers to the ancient estimate of bread as an edible plate or trencher for other foods in this extract from the Aeneid :

Their homely fare dispatch’d, the hungry band
Invade their trenchers next, and soon devour,
To mend the scanty meal, their cakes of flour.
Ascanius this observ’d, and smiling said:
“See, we devour the plates on which we fed.”

These flatbreads, like pizza, were from the Mediterranean area and other examples of flat breads that survive to this day from the ancient Mediterranean world are “ focaccia, ” which may date bet on angstrom far as the Ancient Etruscans ; “ erythroxylon coca, ” which has sweetness and savory varieties from Catalonia and the Balearic Islands ; and the greek “ Pita ” or “ Pide ” in Turkish. Similar compressed breads in other parts of the world include the indian “ Paratha ”, the South asian “ Naan, ” and the german “ Flammkuchen. ” The first recorded use of the password “ pizza ” dates from 997 C.E. This comes from a latin text from the township of Gaeta in Southern Italy, stating that a tenant of certain property was to give the bishop of Gaeta duodecim pizze, “ twelve pizza, ” every Christmas day, and another twelve every east wind Sunday. [ 1 ]. The origin of the word pizza has been suggested to be Germanic, related to the English word “ to bite. ” Italy was subjugate to domination by two Germanic-speaking peoples, the Goths and the Lombards ( Langobards ). Pizza could derive from a Lombardic word exchangeable in form to the Old high German bizzo or pizzo, related to words meaning “ pungency. ” This word primitively meant “ taste ” ( what one obtains by “ biting ” ), then later “ piece of boodle ” ( the distinctive contented of a taste ). [ 1 ]


The invention that gave us the particular bland boodle we call “ pizza ” was the use of tomato as a crown. Brought to Europe from the Americas in the sixteenth hundred, the poor people of the sphere around Naples began to add tomato to their yeast -based flat boodle, and so the pizza was born. The dish gained in popularity, and soon pizza became an drawing card to visitors who ventured into the poorer areas of the city in order to try the local anesthetic specialization .
Antica Pizzeria Port ‘Alba in Naples Until about 1830, pizza was sold from alfresco stands and street vendors out of pizza bakeries, a custom that is still kept alive today by some pizzerie. Antica Pizzeria Port ’ Alba in Naples is wide regarded as the world ‘s first pizzeria. They started producing pizza for peddlers in 1738, but expanded to a pizza restaurant with chairs and tables in 1830, and calm serve pizza from the same premises today. [ 2 ] A description of pizza in Naples around 1830 is given by the french writer Alexandre Dumas, père in his work Le Corricolo, in which he wrote that pizza was the only food of the base people in Naples during winter, and that “ in Naples pizza is flavored with oil, embroider, tallow, cheese, tomato, or anchovies. ” [ 3 ] Purists, like the celebrated pizzeria Da Michele ( establish 1870 ) consider there to be only two true pizzas—the “ Marinara ” and the “ Margherita ” —and that is all they serve. [ 4 ] The marinara is the oldest and has a top of tomato, marjoram, garlic, extra pure olive anoint, and normally basil. It was named marinara not, as many believe, because it has seafood on it ( which it does not ), but because it was the food the fishermen ate when they returned home from fishing trips in the Bay of Naples. The Margherita is attributed to baker Raffaele Esposito. In 1889, he baked three different pizza for the visit of King Umberto I and Queen Margherita of Savoy. The Queen ‘s darling was a pizza evoking the colors of the italian flag—green ( basil leaves ), white ( mozzarella ), and bolshevik ( tomatoes ). This combination was named Pizza Margherita in her award. [ 5 ] nowadays, there are many celebrated pizzerias in Naples where these traditional pizza can be found ; most of them are located in the ancient diachronic center of Naples .

United States

Lombardi ‘s Pizza at 32 Spring Street in Little Italy, Manhattan Pizza first gear made its appearance in the United States with the arrival of italian immigrants in the late-nineteenth century. In cities with large italian populations, such as San Francisco, Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia pizza was foremost sold on the streets of italian neighborhoods. The first “ official ” pizzeria is broadly believed to have been founded by Gennaro Lombardi in Little Italy in New York. Gennaro Lombardi opened a grocery store shop in 1897 which by and by was established as the first pizzeria in America in 1905 with New York ‘s issue of the mercantile license. An employee of his, Antonio Totonno Pero, began making pizza for the shop to sell that same year. The price for an stallion pizza was five cents, but since many people could not afford the cost of a whole proto-indo european, they could alternatively say how much they could pay and they were given a slice corresponding to the total offered. In 1924, Totonno left Lombardi ‘s to open his own pizzeria on Coney Island called Totonno ‘s. While the original Lombardi ‘s closed its doors in 1984, it was reopened in 1994 just down the street and is run by Lombardi ‘s grandson. Pizza was brought to the Trenton area of New Jersey with Joe ‘s Tomato Pies opening in 1910, followed soon by Papa ‘s Tomato Pies in 1912. In 1936, Delorenzo ‘s Tomato Pies was opened. While Joe ‘s Tomato Pies has since closed, both Papa ‘s and Delorenzo ‘s have been run by the same families since their openings and remain popular in the area. Frank Pepe Pizzeria Napoletana in New Haven, Connecticut, was another early pizzeria which opened in 1925 ( after the owner served pies from local anesthetic carts and bakeries for 20 to 25 years ), and is celebrated for its New Haven-style clam pie. Frank Pepe ‘s nephew Sal Consiglio opened a competing memory, Sally ‘s, on the other end of the block, in 1938. Both establishments are however run by descendants of the original syndicate. The D’Amore family introduced pizza to Los Angeles in 1939. anterior to the 1940s, pizza consumption was limited largely to italian immigrants and their descendants. The external breakthrough came after World War II. Allied troops occupying Italy, tire of their rations, were constantly on the lookout for good food. They discovered the pizzeria, and local bakers were distressed to satisfy the necessitate from the soldiers. The american troops involved in the italian political campaign took their taste for the dish back home, touted by “ veterans ranging from the lowliest private to Dwight D. Eisenhower. ” [ 6 ]
Pizza in box for delivery The modern pizza industry, popular throughout the United States and with it uniquely american fictional character, was born in the Midwestern United States. [ 6 ] Ric Riccardo pioneered what became known as the deep dish pizza when, in 1943, he and Ike Sewell opened Pizzeria Uno in Chicago, and a coevals later, Tom Monaghan launched what soon became known as Domino ‘s Pizza, credited by some for popularizing spare home pitch. With its rising popularity, chain restaurants moved in. today, the American pizza business is dominated by companies that specialize in pizza delivery .


Some pizza can be very high in strategic arms limitation talks and fat and concerns have been raised about the negative impression these pizzas can have on people ’ s health. For example, Pizza Hut has come under criticism for the high salt content of some of their meals, which were found to contain more than doubly the daily recommend amount of salt for an pornographic. [ 7 ] however, it should besides be noted that commercially made fast-food pizza is very different from well-made italian pizza, particularly from a dependable restaurant which is concerned with using entirely good ingredients, or even more thus in a homemade pizza. The salt and saturated adipose tissue content of a homemade pizza is normally far less if using original recipes. Mozzarella cheese is less fatty than many other cheeses. Feta cheese, which has an even lower saturated-fat capacity, is often used in homemade-pizza recipes. There is besides the possibility of including other healthy ingredients in the toppings, such as fresh tomatoes, bell peppers, mushrooms, spinach, zucchini, eggplant, and so forth .

cultural significance

italian, and in finical Neapolitans, take their pizza identical badly. A bill was brought ahead Parliament to safeguard the “ traditional italian pizza, ” specifying permissible ingredients and methods of process. [ 8 ] only pizzas which followed these guidelines could be called “ traditional italian pizza, ” at least in Italy. [ 9 ] Italy has besides requested that the European Union safeguard some traditional italian pizza, such as “ Margherita ” and “ Marinara ”. [ 10 ] The European Union enacted a protect appointment of beginning system in the 1990s .

regional variations

italian pizza

authentic Neapolitan pizza margherita, the floor for most kinds of pizza The pizza bases in Naples are easy and fictile, but in Rome they prefer a thin and crisp base. Another democratic mannequin of pizza in Italy is “ pizza alabama taglio, ” which is pizza baked in orthogonal trays with a wide variety of toppings and sold by slant .

Neapolitan pizza (pizza napoletana)

authentic Neapolitan pizza are made with local ingredients such as San Marzano tomatoes, which grow on the volcanic plains to the confederacy of Mount Vesuvius, and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, made with the milk from water american bison raised in the marshlands of Campania and Lazio in a semi-wild state ( this mozzarella is protected with its own european protected appellation of beginning ). actual Neapolitan pizza dough consists of italian wheat flour ( type 0 or 00, or a mixture of both ), natural Neapolitan yeast or brewer ’ south yeast, salt, and body of water. [ 11 ] For proper results, potent flour with high protein contented ( as used for bread-making preferably than cakes ) must be used. The boodle must be kneaded by bridge player or with a low-speed sociable. After the rising work, the dough must be formed by bridge player without the help of a roll out bowling pin or other mechanical device, and may be no more than 3 millimeters ( 0.12 in ) thick. The pizza must be baked for 60 to 90 seconds in a 485 °C ( 905 °F ) stone oven with an oak-wood fire. When cooked, it should be crispy, crank, and fragrant. Neapolitan pizza has been given the condition of a “ guaranteed traditional forte ” in Italy. This allows only three official variants : pizza marinara, which is made with tomato, garlic, oregano, and extra-virgin olive oil ( although most Neapolitan pizzeria besides add basil to the marinara ) ; Margherita, made with tomato, sliced mozzarella, basil, and extra-virgin olive anoint ; and pizza Margherita supernumerary, made with tomato, buffalo mozzarella from Campania in fillets, basil, and extra-virgin olive petroleum .
Pizza al taglio in Rome in Rome

Lazio stylus ( Roman )

Pizza in Lazio ( Rome ), equally well as in many other parts of Italy is available in two unlike styles :

  • Take-away shops sell pizza rustica or pizza al taglio. This pizza is cooked in long, rectangular baking pans and relatively thick (one to two centimeters). The crust is similar to that of an English muffin, and the pizza is often cooked in an electric oven. It is usually cut with scissors or a knife and sold by weight.
  • In pizza restaurants (pizzerias), pizza is served in a dish in its traditional round shape. It has a thin, crisp base quite different to the thicker and softer Neapolitan style base. It is usually cooked in a wood-fired oven, giving the pizza its unique flavor and texture. In Rome, a pizza napoletana is topped with tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, and oil. Thus, what in Naples is called pizza romana, in Rome is called pizza napoletana.

other types of Lazio-style pizza admit :

  • Pizza romana (in Naples): tomato, mozzarella, anchovies, oregano, oil;
  • Pizza viennese: tomato, mozzarella, German sausage, oregano, oil;
  • Pizza capricciosa (“capricious pizza”): mozzarella, tomato, mushrooms, artichokes, cooked ham, olives, oil (in Rome, prosciutto raw ham is used and half a hard-boiled egg is added);
  • Pizza quattro stagioni (“four seasons pizza”): same ingredients for the capricciosa, but ingredients not mixed;
  • Pizza quattro formaggi (“four cheese pizza”): tomatoes, mozzarella, stracchino, fontina, gorgonzola (sometimes ricotta can be swapped for one of the last three);
  • Sicilian-style pizza has its toppings baked directly into the crust. An authentic recipe uses neither cheese nor anchovies. “Sicilian” pizza in the United States is typically a different variety of product made with a thick crust characterized by a rectangular shape and topped with tomato sauce and cheese (and optional toppings). Pizza Hut’s “Sicilian Pizza,” introduced in 1994, is not an authentic example of the style as only garlic, basil, and oregano are mixed into the crust;
  • White pizza (pizza bianca) uses no tomato sauce, often substituting pesto or dairy products such as sour cream. In Rome, the term pizza bianca refers to a type of bread topped with olive oil, salt and, occasionally, rosemary leaves. It is also a Roman style to top the white pizza with figs, the result called pizza e fichi (pizza with figs);
  • Ripieno or calzone is a pizza in the form of a half moon, sometimes filled with ricotta, salami, and mozzarella; it can be either fried or oven baked.

Non-Italian types of pizza

In the twentieth century, pizza became an external food, with the toppings varying well in accord with local tastes. These pizza consist of the same basic blueprint but include an exceptionally divers choice of ingredients .

United States

due to the influence of italian and greek immigrants in american culture, the United States has developed a large number of regional forms of pizza, many bearing entirely a casual resemblance to the italian original. During the latter half of the twentieth century, pizza in the United States became an iconic dish of considerable popularity. Often, “ Americanized ” foods such as barbecued chicken and bacon cheeseburgers are used to create new types of pizza. mexican pizza, or taco pizza, is besides democratic. American pizza much has vegetable oil or shorten ( frequently, but not constantly, olive oil ) mixed into the boodle ; this is not as park in italian recipes. This can range from a small measure in relatively tend doughs, such as New York style, to a very large total in some recipes for Chicago-style deep-dish boodle. In addition, American pizza ( at least thin-crust ) is much made with a very high-gluten flour ( much 13 to 14-percent protein content ) of the character besides used to make bagels ; this type of flour allows the boodle to be stretched rather thinly without tearing, exchangeable to strudel or phyllo boodle. assorted toppings may be added, most typically :

  • Tomato sauce usually replaces the tomato mixture used on Italian-style pizzas, and is usually a fairly heavily seasoned, smooth sauce with a low water content. On some variants without tomatoes, pesto, alfredo, and barbecue sauce are also used.
  • Cheese, usually mozzarella but also provolone, cheddar, parmesan, or a blend of other cheeses.
  • Fruits and vegetables such as garlic, artichoke hearts, eggplant, olives, capers, onions, spinach, tomatoes, bell peppers, green chili peppers, jalapeños, banana peppers, and pineapple.
  • Fungi, usually mushrooms and rarely truffles.
  • Meat, such as sausage, (pepperoni, salami, or Italian sausage), ham, bacon, ground beef, and chicken.
  • Seafood such as anchovies, tuna, salmon, and shrimp.
  • Herbs and spices such as basil, oregano, and black pepper.
  • Nuts such as cashews, pistachios, and pine nuts.
  • Oils such as olive oil, walnut oil, and truffle oil.

A homemade pizza exhibiting a overplus of toppings common to american pizza In some pizza recipes the tomato sauce is omitted ( term “ white pizza ” ), or replaced with another sauce ( normally garlic butter, but sauces can besides be made with spinach or onions ). numerous variations exist across the United States. These can be bought in restaurants and pizzeria, or baked at home. [ 12 ] Following are some of the more well-known styles :

New York

New York-style pizza is a stylus originally developed in New York City by immigrants from Naples. It is often sold in liberally sized, reduce, and flexible slices. It is traditionally hand-tossed, moderate on sauce, and moderately covered with cheese basically amounting to a much larger translation of the Neapolitan style. The slices are sometimes feed folded in half, or even stacked, as its size and flexibility may differently make it unwieldy to eat by hand. This style of pizza dominates in the Northeastern states, and is very similar to the basic stylus common through the United States known merely as “ pizza. ” many pizza establishments in the New York metropolitan area offer two varieties of pizza : “ Neapolitan, ” or “ regular, ” made with a relatively thin, circular crust, and served in cuneate slices, and “ Sicilian, ” or “ feather, ” made with a thick, orthogonal crust, and served in large, rectangular slices .
White clam pizza

New Haven

New Haven-style pizza is popular in southerly Connecticut. It has a thin crust that varies between chewy and tender, depending on the finical constitution. The default version is a “ white ” pizza topped with only garlic and arduous cheeses ; customers who want tomato sauce or mozzarella cheese have to ask for them explicitly. A pizza has a very iniquity, “ scorched ” wrinkle crust that offers a classifiable bitter flavor, which can be offset by the bouquet of tomatoes or other toppings .

Greek pizza

greek pizza is a pas seul popular in New England. Its name comes from the style of pizzerias owned by greek immigrants. It has a dense, chewier crust and is baked in a pan in the pizza oven, rather of directly on the bricks. Plain olive petroleum is a park part of the lead, arsenic well as being liberally used to grease the pans and crisp the crust. Variations in other parts of the nation include using feta cheese, Kalamata olives, and Greek herbs such as marjoram .
Chicago-style deep-dish pizza


Chicago-style pizza, or deep-dish pizza, contains a crust which is formed up the sides of a deep-dish pan. It reverses the order of some ingredients, using crust, cheese, filling, then sauce on top. Some versions ( normally referred to as “ stuffed ” ) have two layers of crust with the sauce on top. Chicago-style thin-crust pizza has a thin crust than Chicago-style deep serve, and is baked flat preferably than in a deep-dish pan. The crust is thin and firm adequate to have a noticeable crunch, unlike a New York-style pizza, so far chummy enough to be soft and doughy on the top. The crust is constantly topped with a liberal measure of southern-Italian style tomato sauce, which is normally quite herbal or highly spiced, and typically contains no visible chunks of tomato. Next, a layer of toppings is added, and a layer of mozzarella cheese which frequently separates from the bottom crust due to the measure of tomato sauce. Chicago-style thin-crust pizza are cut into three-to-four-inch squares, besides known as “ party cut, ” as opposed to a “ pie reduce ” into wedges. The humble size of the squares makes it unnecessary to fold the slices. Chicago-style pizza is prevailing throughout the Midwestern United States .

St. Louis

St. Louis-style pizza is a thin crust random variable that is democratic in and around St. Louis, Missouri. The most luminary feature of St. Louis-style pizza is the distinctively St. Louisan Provel cheese used rather of ( or rarely in addition to ) mozzarella tall mallow. The toppings normally consist of fresh ingredients, sliced rather of diced. It is common for the pizza to be topped with bombastic pieces of onion, orotund slices of bell pepper, and entire strips of bacon. The crust is thin adequate that it becomes very crunchy in the oven and is sometimes compared to a redneck. even though the crust is round, it is constantly cut into little squares .


California-style pizza refers to pizza with non-traditional ingredients, specially those that use a considerable sum of fresh grow. A Thai -inspired chicken pizza with peanut sauce, attic sprouts, and shaved carrots is a popular form in California-style pizza restaurants, as are pizzas that practice wimp and barbecue sauce as toppings .


hawaiian pizza has canadian bacon ( or sliced ham ) and pineapple toppings with mozzarella tall mallow. This type of pizza is particularly popular in the western United States, and is besides a democratic topping combination in Australia, Canada, and Sweden, but notably not in Hawaii. This type is besides common within the EU, where it is known as “ pizza Hawaii. ” Taco pizza has ingredients normally associated with greaser, such as ; boodle, shredded gripe or hamburger, chopped tomatoes, avocado, corn whiskey chips, cheddar cheese, sour cream, and taco sauce. Grilled pizza, invented in Providence, Rhode Island, uses a reasonably sparse crust cooked on a grill ; the toppings are placed on the broil side after the pizza has cooked a while and flipped over. english muffin, french bread pizza, and pizza bagels are coarse public toilet pizza made at home in an oven or toaster, normally with a elementary top-flight of tomato sauce, sliced or chopped cheese, and possibly pepperoni. french bread pizza is sometimes available commercially as a freeze meal .
Cooked from fixed pizza topped with cheese and tomato sauce

Frozen and ready-to-bake pizzas

Pizza is besides found as a fixed food in grocery stores and supermarkets. A considerable amount of food-technology inventiveness has gone into the creation of palatable freeze pizza. The independent challenges include preventing the sauce from combining with the boodle and producing a crust that can be frozen and reheated without becoming inflexible. Modified corn starch is normally used as a moisture barrier between the sauce and crust. traditionally, the boodle is slightly pre-baked and other ingredients are besides sometimes pre-cooked. More recently, freeze pizza with wholly crude ingredients have besides begun to appear, as have those with “ self-rising ” crusts. many grocery stores and supermarkets besides sell fresh, ready-to-bake pizza .


Pizza is democratic in Australia, where a meaning percentage of the population is of italian lineage. The usual italian varieties are available, but there is besides the “ australian, ” or “ australiana, ” which has the common tomato-sauce free-base and mozzarella tall mallow with bacon and egg ( seen as quintessentially australian breakfast do ). Prawns are besides sometimes used on this manner of pizza. In the 1980s, australian pizza shops and restaurants began selling “ epicure pizza, ” basically pizzas with upmarket ingredients such as salmon, dill, bocconcini, tiger prawns, and even such toppings as kangaroo, electromagnetic unit, and crocodile meats. wood-fired pizza, cooked in an impressive-looking ceramic oven heated by wood fuel, are besides popular .


Pizza is a very popular smasher in Brazil, brought by italian immigrants to that country. Sao Paulo, a city that calls itself ‘The Pizza Capital of the World ‘, hosting more than 6,000 pizza establishments and where more than 1.4 million pizza are consumed every day. [ 13 ]. typically, pizza follow the Neapolitan assortment, preferably than the Roman one, being blockheaded and more doughy .


Pizza has emerged as a popular fast food in indian urban areas, peculiarly among youth. Pizza outlets serve pizza with respective Indian-based toppings, such as Tandoori chicken and bungalow cheese ( Known as Paneer in India ). indian pizza are broadly more spicy compared to their western counterparts, in order to suit indian taste. Along with amerind variations, more conventional pizza are besides available .


References ISBN links subscribe NWE through referral fees

  • Karmel, Elizabeth, and Bob Blumer. Pizza on the Grill: 100 Feisty Fire-roasted Recipes for Pizza & More. Newtown, CT: Taunton Press, 2008. ISBN 9781600850066
  • Katz, Solomon H., and William Woys Weaver. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. New York, NY: Scribner, 2003. ISBN 9780684805689
  • McNair, James. Pizza. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1987. ISBN 9780877014812
  • Morgan, Diane, and Tony Gemignani, Pizza: More than 60 Recipes for Delicious Homemade Pizza. Chronicle Books, 2005. ISBN 0811845540
  • Puck, Wolfgang, and Steven Rothfeld. Wolfgang Puck’s Pizza, Pasta and More! New York, NY: Random House, 2000. ISBN 9780679438878
  • Stucchi, Lorenza De’ Medici, and Chuck Williams. Pizza. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1993. ISBN 9780783502298

All links retrieved March 29, 2019.


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