California – Wikipedia

U.S. state
This article is about the U.S. state. For early uses, see California ( disambiguation )
state in the United States

California is a state of matter in the Western United States. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican express of Baja California to the south ; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west. With over 39.5 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles ( 423,970 km2 ), it is the most populous and the third-largest U.S. state of matter by area. It is besides the most populate subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation ‘s second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the early having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. [ 13 ] Sacramento is the express ‘s capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the area ( after New York City ). Los Angeles County is the area ‘s most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by sphere in the country ( Alaska has some larger subdivisions, but they are not called counties ). San Francisco, which is both a city and a county, is the second most densely populate major city in the area ( after New York City ) and the fifth most dumbly populate county in the state, behind four of New York City ‘s five boroughs. The economy of California, with a crude state merchandise of $ 3.2 trillion as of 2019, is the largest sub-national economy in the world. [ 14 ] If it were a country, it would be the fifth largest economy as of 2020 angstrom well as the 37th most populous. [ 15 ] The Greater Los Angeles sphere and the San Francisco Bay Area are the state ‘s second- and third-largest urban economies ( $ 1.0 trillion and $ 0.5 trillion respectively as of 2020 ), after the New York metropolitan area ( $ 1.8 trillion ). [ 16 ] The San Francisco Bay Area Combined Statistical Area had the state ‘s highest gross domestic product per caput ( $ 106,757 ) among boastfully primary statistical areas in 2018, [ 17 ] and is family to five of the global ‘s ten largest companies by market capitalization [ 18 ] and four of the earth ‘s ten deep people. [ 19 ] prior to european colonization, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically divers areas in pre-columbian North America and contained the highest native american english population density north of what is nowadays Mexico. european exploration in the 16th and 17th centuries led to the colonization of California by the spanish Empire. In 1804, it was included in Alta California province within the Viceroyalty of New Spain. The sphere became a function of Mexico in 1821, following its successful war for independence, but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. The westerly assign of Alta California was then organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850, following the Compromise of 1850. The California Gold Rush started in 1848 and led to dramatic social and demographic changes, including large-scale immigration into California, a global economic boom, and the California genocide of autochthonal people. celebrated contributions to popular culture, for case in entertainment and sports, have their origins in California. The state besides has made noteworthy contributions in the fields of communication, data, initiation, environmentalism, economics, and politics. [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] It is the family of Hollywood, the oldest and largest film industry in the populace, which has had a heavy impression on global entertainment. It is considered the origin of the hippie counterculture, beach and cable car culture, [ 23 ] and the personal computer, [ 24 ] among other innovations. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are widely seen as the centers of the ball-shaped technology and film industries, respectively. California ‘s economy is very divers : 58 % of it is based on finance, politics, real estate services, technology, and professional, scientific, and technical business services. [ 27 ] Although it accounts for merely 1.5 % of the state ‘s economy, [ 27 ] California ‘s department of agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.S. state. [ 28 ] [ 29 ] [ 30 ] California ‘s ports and harbors handle about a third of all U.S. imports, most originating in Pacific Rim international barter. The submit ‘s highly diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast and metropolitan areas in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountains in the east, and from the sequoia and Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the country ‘s center. Although California is well known for its warmly Mediterranean climate and monsoon seasonal weather, the bombastic size of the state results in climates that vary from damp moderate rain forest in the north to arid desert in the inside, adenine well as snow-white alpine in the mountains. All these factors lead to an enormous requirement for water. Over time, droughts and wildfires have been increasing in frequency and badness, [ 31 ] becoming less seasonal and more year-round, far straining California ‘s urine security. [ 32 ] [ 33 ]

etymology

The Spaniards gave the appoint Las Californias to the peninsula of Baja California and to Alta California, the area that became the contemporary country of California. The diagnose likely derived from the fabulous island of California in the fabricated history of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. [ 34 ] This workplace was the fifth in a democratic spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadís de Gaula. [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ] Queen Calafia ‘s kingdom was said to be a remote control land rich in aureate and pearl, inhabited by beautiful Black women who wore aureate armor and lived like Amazons, angstrom well as griffins and other foreign beasts. [ 34 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ] In the fabricated eden, the rule Queen Calafia fought aboard Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It is possible the name California was meant to imply the island was a Caliphate. [ 34 ] [ 40 ]

Know ye that at the mighty hand of the Indies there is an island called California, identical cheeseparing to that share of the Terrestrial Paradise, which was inhabited by black women without a single man among them, and they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with strong passionate hearts and great virtue. The island itself is one of the wildest in the earth on account of the bluff and cragged rocks .Chapter CLVII of The Adventures of Esplandián[41]

Shortened forms of the state ‘s identify include CA, Cal, Cali, Calif, Califas, and US-CA .

history

A map of California tribal groups and languages at the meter of european contact

first base inhabitants

Settled by consecutive waves of arrivals during at least the final 13,000 years, [ 42 ] California was one of the most culturally and linguistically divers areas in pre-columbian North America. [ 43 ] Various estimates of the native population have ranged from 100,000 to 300,000. The autochthonal peoples of California included more than 70 distinct ethnic groups of Native Americans, ranging from big, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the inside. California groups besides were diverse in their political arrangement with bands, tribes, villages, and on the resource-rich coasts, big chiefdoms, such as the Chumash, Pomo and Salinan. Trade, exogamy and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the divers groups .

spanish rule

The beginning Europeans to explore the California seashore were the members of a spanish seafaring dispatch led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo ; they entered San Diego Bay on September 28, 1542, and reached at least as far union as San Miguel Island. Privateer and explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed an undefined part of the California coast in 1579, landing north of the future city of San Francisco. The first Asians to set foot on what would be the United States occurred in 1587, when Filipino sailors arrived in spanish ships at Morro Bay. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] [ note 1 ] Sebastián Vizcaíno explored and mapped the slide of California in 1602 for New Spain, putting ashore in Monterey. Despite the on-the-ground explorations of California in the sixteenth century, Rodríguez ‘s mind of California as an island persisted. such depictions appeared on many european maps well into the eighteenth century. [ 52 ] After the Portolà expedition of 1769–70, spanish missionaries led by Junipero Serra began setting up 21 California Missions on or near the slide of Alta ( Upper ) California, beginning in San Diego. During the same period, spanish military forces built several forts ( presidios ) and three little towns ( pueblos ). The San Francisco Mission grew into the city of San Francisco, and two of the pueblo grew into the cities of Los Angeles and San Jose. respective other smaller cities and towns besides sprang up surrounding the versatile spanish missions and pueblo, which remain to this day. During this same period, sailors from the Russian Empire explored along the California slide and in 1812 established a deal stake at Fort Ross. Russia ‘s early 19th-century coastal settlements in California were positioned just north of the northernmost boundary of the area of spanish colony in San Francisco Bay, and were the southernmost russian settlements in North America. The russian settlements associated with Fort Ross were spread from Point Arena to Tomales Bay. [ 54 ]

mexican rule

[55] Map showing Alta California in 1838, when it was a sparsely populated Mexican province In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence gave Mexico ( including California ) independence from Spain. For the future 25 years, Alta California remained as a distant, sparsely populate, northwestern administrative district of the newly freelancer area of Mexico. The missions, which controlled most of the best land in the state, were secularized by 1834 and became the property of the mexican government. [ 56 ] The governor granted many square leagues of land to others with political influence. These huge ranchos or cattle ranches emerged as the prevailing institutions of Mexican California. The ranchos developed under ownership by Californios ( Hispanics native of California ) who traded cowhides and tallow with Boston merchants. Beef did not become a commodity until the 1849 California Gold Rush. From the 1820s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California. These new arrivals used the Siskiyou Trail, California Trail, Oregon Trail and Old Spanish Trail to cross the rugged mountains and harsh deserts in and surrounding California .
The early on politics of the newly independent Mexico was highly precarious, and in a reflection of this, from 1831 onwards, California besides experienced a series of armed disputes, both home and with the central mexican government. [ 57 ] During this disruptive political period Juan Bautista Alvarado was able to secure the governorship during 1836–1842. [ 58 ] The military action which first brought Alvarado to world power had momentarily declared California to be an mugwump department of state, and had been aided by anglo-american residents of California, [ 59 ] including Isaac Graham. [ 60 ] In 1840, one hundred of those residents who did not have passports were arrested, leading to the Graham Affair, which was resolved in separate with the intervention of Royal Navy officials. [ 59 ]
One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh. After failing to obtain judge against squatters on his land from the mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States. Marsh conducted a letter-writing political campaign espousing the California climate, the territory, and other reasons to settle there, ampere well as the best route to follow, which became known as “ Marsh ‘s road ”. His letters were read, reread, passed around, and printed in newspapers throughout the country, and started the first wagon trains rolling to California. [ 61 ] He invited immigrants to stay on his ranch until they could get settled, and assisted in their receive passports. [ 62 ] After ushering in the menstruation of organized emigration to California, Marsh became involved in a military battle between the much-hated Mexican general, Manuel Micheltorena and the California governor he had replaced, Juan Bautista Alvarado. The armies of each touch at the Battle of Providencia near Los Angeles. Marsh had been forced against his will to join Micheltorena ‘s army. Ignoring his superiors, during the conflict, he signaled the other side for a parley. There were many settlers from the United States fighting on both sides. He convinced these men that they had no reason to be fighting each other. As a result of Marsh ‘s actions, they abandoned the fight, Micheltorena was defeated, and California-born Pio Pico was returned to the governorship. This paved the way to California ‘s ultimate acquisition by the United States. [ 63 ] [ 64 ] [ 65 ] [ 66 ] [ 67 ]

California Republic and conquest

In 1846, a group of american english settlers in and around Sonoma rebelled against Mexican dominion during the Bear Flag Revolt. Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag ( featuring a give birth, a star, a bolshevik stripe and the words “ California Republic ” ) at Sonoma. The Republic ‘s alone president was William B. Ide, [ 68 ] who played a pivotal function during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by american settlers served as a preliminary to the later american military invasion of California and was closely coordinated with nearby american military commanders. The California Republic was ephemeral ; [ 69 ] the lapp year marked the outbreak of the Mexican–American War ( 1846–48 ). [ 70 ] When Commodore John D. Sloat of the United States Navy sailed into Monterey Bay and began the military occupation of California by the United States, Northern California capitulated in less than a month to the United States forces. [ 71 ] After a series of defensive battles in Southern California, the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed by the Californios on January 13, 1847, securing american control in California. [ 72 ]

early american english period

Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ( February 2, 1848 ) that ended the war, the westernmost assign of the annex Mexican district of Alta California soon became the american state of California, and the end of the old territory was then subdivided into the new american Territories of Arizona, Nevada, Colorado and Utah. The even more lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a depart of Mexico. In 1846, the sum settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,000, plus about 100,000 native Americans, down from about 300,000 before spanish american settlement in 1769. [ 73 ] In 1848, only one week before the official american annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to constantly alter both the state ‘s demographics and its finances. Soon subsequently, a massive inflow of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands. The population burgeoned with United States citizens, Europeans, Chinese and other immigrants during the great California Gold Rush. By the time of California ‘s application for statehood in 1850, the settler population of California had multiplied to 100,000. By 1854, more than 300,000 settlers had come. [ 74 ] Between 1847 and 1870, the population of San Francisco increased from 500 to 150,000. [ 75 ] California was on the spur of the moment no longer a sparsely populate backwater, but apparently overnight it had grown into a major population center. The buttocks of politics for California under spanish and later Mexican principle had been located in Monterey from 1777 until 1845. [ 56 ] Pio Pico, the stopping point Mexican governor of Alta California, had concisely moved the capital to Los Angeles in 1845. The United States consulate had besides been located in Monterey, under consul Thomas O. Larkin. In 1849, a state of matter Constitutional Convention was inaugural held in Monterey. Among the beginning tasks of the convention was a decision on a location for the newly state capital. The beginning wax legislative sessions were held in San Jose ( 1850–1851 ). subsequent locations included Vallejo ( 1852–1853 ), and nearby Benicia ( 1853–1854 ) ; these locations finally proved to be inadequate as well. The das kapital has been located in Sacramento since 1854 [ 76 ] with only a short break in 1862 when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco ascribable to flooding in Sacramento. Once the country ‘s Constitutional Convention had finalized its state fundamental law, it applied to the U.S. Congress for admission to statehood. On September 9, 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, California became a free express and September 9 a state holiday. During the American Civil War ( 1861–1865 ), California sent aureate shipments eastwards to Washington in accompaniment of the Union. [ 77 ] however, due to the universe of a boastfully contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the country, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war attempt. still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the country of California, such as the “ California 100 ship’s company ”, due to a majority of their members being from California. At the time of California ‘s admission into the Union, travel between California and the remainder of the continental United States had been a time-consuming and dangerous feat. Nineteen years belated, and seven years after it was greenlighted by President Lincoln, the First Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869. California was then approachable from the eastern States in a week ‘s fourth dimension. much of the express was highly well suited to fruit cultivation and department of agriculture in general. huge expanses of wheat, early cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown ( including oranges in Southern California ), and the foundation was laid for the state ‘s exceeding agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere. In the nineteenth century, a big number of migrants from China traveled to the express as region of the Gold Rush or to seek exercise. [ 78 ] even though the Chinese proved essential in building the transcontinental railroad from California to Utah, perceived job rival with the Chinese led to anti-Chinese riots in the country, and finally the US ended migration from China partially as a response to pressure from California with the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. [ 79 ]

autochthonal peoples

Under earlier spanish and mexican principle, California ‘s original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from eurasian diseases to which the autochthonal people of California had not so far developed a natural immunity. [ 80 ] Under its raw american english administration, California ‘s harsh governmental policies towards its own autochthonal people did not improve. As in other american states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming american settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers. Although California had entered the American union as a rid express, the “ loiter or orphaned Indians ” were de facto enslaved by their new anglo-american masters under the 1853 Act for the Government and Protection of Indians. [ 81 ] There were besides massacres in which hundreds of autochthonal people were killed. between 1850 and 1860, the California department of state politics paid around 1.5 million dollars ( some 250,000 of which was reimbursed by the union government ) [ 82 ] to hire militias whose determination was to protect settlers from the autochthonal populations. In late decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often belittled and isolated and without enough lifelike resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them. [ 83 ] As a result, the rise of California was a calamity for the native inhabitants. respective scholars and native american activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo, have described the actions of the California government as a genocide. [ 83 ] [ 84 ]

1900–present

In the twentieth century, thousands of japanese people migrated to the US and California specifically to attempt to purchase and own land in the country. however, the state in 1913 passed the Alien Land Act, excluding asian immigrants from owning bring. [ 85 ] During World War II, japanese Americans in California were interned in concentration camps such as at Tule Lake and Manzanar. [ 86 ] In 2020, California officially apologized for this internment. [ 87 ] migration to California accelerated during the early twentieth century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route 66. In the menstruation from 1900 to 1965, the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union. In 1940, the Census Bureau reported California ‘s population as 6.0 % Hispanic, 2.4 % asian, and 89.5 % non-Hispanic white. [ 88 ] To meet the population ‘s needs, major engineering feats like the California and Los Angeles Aqueducts ; the Oroville and Shasta Dams ; and the Bay and Golden Gate Bridges were built across the state of matter. The submit government besides adopted the California Master plan for Higher education in 1960 to develop a highly effective system of public education. interim, attracted to the meek Mediterranean climate, cheap state, and the country ‘s wide diverseness of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the 1920s. California manufactured 8.7 percentage of total United States military armaments produced during World War II, ranking third ( behind New York and Michigan ) among the 48 states. [ 89 ] California however easily ranked first in product of military ships during the war ( ecstasy, cargo, [ merchant ships ] such as Liberty ships, Victory ships, and warships ) at dry-dock facilities in San Diego, Los Angeles, and the San Francisco Bay Area. [ 90 ] [ 91 ] [ 92 ] [ 93 ] After World War II, California ‘s economy greatly expanded due to strong aerospace and defense industries, [ 94 ] whose size decreased following the end of the Cold War. [ 94 ] [ 95 ] Stanford University and its Dean of Engineering Frederick Terman began encouraging staff and graduates to stay in California rather of leaving the department of state, and develop a high-tech area in the area now known as Silicon Valley. [ 96 ] As a result of these efforts, California is regarded as a universe center of the entertainment and music industries, of engineering, engineer, and the aerospace industry, and as the United States center of agricultural production. Just before the Dot Com Bust, California had the fifth-largest economy in the universe among nations. [ 98 ] so far since 1991, and starting in the late 1980s in Southern California, California has seen a net loss of domestic migrants in most years. This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. [ 99 ]
In the mid and late twentieth hundred, a phone number of race-related incidents occurred in the state. Tensions between police and african Americans, combined with unemployment and poverty in inner cities, led to violent riots, such as the 1965 Watts riots and 1992 Rodney King riots. [ 100 ] [ 101 ] California was besides the hub of the Black Panther Party, a group known for arming african Americans to combat perceived racial injustice. [ 102 ] Additionally, Mexican, Filipino, and other migrant farm workers rallied in the state around Cesar Chavez for better pay in the 1960s and 1970s. [ 103 ] During the twentieth century, two great disasters happened in California. The 1906 San Francisco earthquake and 1928 St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadly in U.S history. [ 104 ] Although vent contamination problems have been reduced, health problems associated with befoulment have continued. The brown daze known as “ smog “ has been substantially abated after the passing of union and state restrictions on car exhaust. [ 105 ] [ 106 ] An department of energy crisis in 2001 led to rolling blackouts, soaring power rates, and the importing of electricity from neighboring states. Southern California Edison and Pacific Gas and Electric Company came under heavy criticism. [ 107 ] Housing prices in urban areas continued to increase ; a modest home which in the 1960s monetary value $ 25,000 would cost half a million dollars or more in urban areas by 2005. More people commuted longer hours to afford a home in more rural areas while earning larger salaries in the urban areas. Speculators bought houses they never intended to live in, expecting to make a huge profit in a count of months, then rolling it over by buying more properties. mortgage companies were compliant, as everyone assumed the prices would keep rising. The bubble explode in 2007-8 as housing prices began to crash and the boom years ended. Hundreds of billions in property values vanished and foreclosures soared as many fiscal institutions and investors were badly hurt. [ 108 ] [ 109 ] In the twenty-first hundred, droughts and frequent wildfires attributed to climate variety have occurred in the state. [ 110 ] [ 111 ] From 2011 to 2017, a haunting drought was the worst in its commemorate history. [ 112 ] The 2018 wildfire season was the state ‘s deadly and most destructive. [ 113 ]

geography

California is the third-largest submit in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas. [ 114 ] California is one of the most geographically diverse states in the coupling and is much geographically bisected into two regions, Southern California, comprising the ten southernmost counties, [ 115 ] [ 116 ] and Northern California, comprising the 48 northernmost counties. [ 117 ] [ 118 ] It is bordered by Oregon to the north, Nevada to the east and northeast, Arizona to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and it shares an international bound with the Mexican express of Baja California to the south ( with which it makes up contribution of The Californias region of North America, aboard Baja California Sur ). In the middle of the country lies the California Central Valley, bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south. The Central Valley is California ‘s generative agrarian heartland. Divided in two by the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, the northern helping, the Sacramento Valley serves as the landmark of the Sacramento River, while the southerly part, the San Joaquin Valley is the watershed for the San Joaquin River. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredge, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained cryptic adequate for several inland cities to be seaports. The Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta is a critical water supply hub for the department of state. Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse closely the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs. water from the Delta provides drink water for closely 23 million people, about two-thirds of the state ‘s population vitamin a well as urine for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. Suisun Bay lies at the confluence of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The water is drained by the Carquinez Strait, which flows into San Pablo Bay, a northern annex of San Francisco Bay, which then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate pass. The Channel Islands are located off the Southern coast, while the Farallon Islands lie west of San Francisco. The Sierra Nevada ( spanish for “ snow-clad range ” ) includes the highest vertex in the adjacent 48 states, Mount Whitney, at 14,505 feet ( 4,421 molarity ). [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The rate embraces Yosemite Valley, celebrated for its glacially carved domes, and Sequoia National Park, home to the colossus sequoia trees, the largest populate organism on Earth, and the cryptic fresh water lake, Lake Tahoe, the largest lake in the state by bulk. To the east of the Sierra Nevada are Owens Valley and Mono Lake, an essential migratory bird habitat. In the western share of the country is gain Lake, the largest fresh water lake by area wholly in California. Although Lake Tahoe is larger, it is divided by the California/Nevada edge. The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several twelve belittled glaciers, including Palisade Glacier, the southernmost glacier in the United States. The Tulare Lake was the largest fresh water lake west of the Mississippi River. A end of Pleistocene -era Lake Corcoran, Tulare Lake dried up by the early twentieth century after its feeder rivers were diverted for agrarian irrigation and municipal water uses. [ 119 ] About 45 percentage of the submit ‘s full come on sphere is covered by forests, [ 120 ] and California ‘s diversity of pine species is odd by any other state. California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world ; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5,000 years old. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] In the confederacy is a bombastic inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. The south-central defect is called the Mojave ; to the northeast of the Mojave lies Death Valley, which contains the lowest and hottest place in North America, the Badwater Basin at −279 feet ( −85 thousand ). [ 7 ] The horizontal distance from the bed of Death Valley to the top of Mount Whitney is less than 90 miles ( 140 kilometer ). indeed, about all of southeastern California is arid, hot defect, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer. The southeastern border of California with Arizona is wholly formed by the Colorado River, from which the southern separate of the state gets about half of its body of water. A majority of California ‘s cities are located in either the San Francisco Bay Area or the Sacramento metropolitan sphere in Northern California ; or the Los Angeles area, the Inland Empire, or the San Diego metropolitan area in Southern California. The Los Angeles Area, the Bay Area, and the San Diego metropolitan area are among several major metropolitan areas along the California coast. As partially of the Ring of Fire, California is subject to tsunamis, floods, droughts, Santa Ana winds, wildfires, landslides on exorbitant terrain, and has several volcanoes. It has many earthquakes due to respective faults running through the state of matter, the largest being the San Andreas Fault. About 37,000 earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are besides modest to be felt. [ 123 ]

climate

Although most of the country has a Mediterranean climate, due to the state ‘s boastfully size the climate ranges from polar to subtropical. The cool California Current offshore much creates summer daze near the coast. Farther inland, there are colder winters and hot summers. The nautical moderation results in the shoreline summer temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the inside and on the east seashore of the north american english celibate. even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States. Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with business district Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast. The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas closer to the ocean. Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California ‘s batch ranges besides influence the climate : some of the rainiest parts of the country are west-facing batch slopes. Northwestern California has a moderate climate, and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast. The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer .
California ‘s mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating across-the-board deserts. The higher elevation deserts of easterly California have hot summers and cold winters, while the first gear deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and closely frostless meek winters. Death Valley, a desert with large expanses below sea level, is considered the hottest placement in the populace ; the highest temperature in the global, [ 124 ] [ 125 ] 134 °F ( 56.7 °C ), was recorded there on July 10, 1913. The lowest temperature in California was −45 °F ( −43 °C ) on January 20, 1937, in Boca. [ 126 ] The board below lists average temperatures for January and August in a choice of places throughout the state ; some highly populated and some not. This includes the relatively aplomb summers of the Humboldt Bay area around Eureka, the extreme point heat of Death Valley, and the batch climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevada .

ecology

California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities. California is separate of the Nearctic kingdom and spans a act of tellurian ecoregions. [ 128 ] California ‘s big count of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood ( Lyonothamnus floribundus ). many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation, whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of divers ecological conditions such as the California lilac ( Ceanothus ). many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, log, overgrazing, and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat .

Flora and fauna

California boasts respective superlatives in its collection of flora : the largest trees, the tallest trees, and the oldest trees. California ‘s native grasses are perennial plants. [ 129 ] After european contact, these were by and large replaced by invasive species of european annual grasses ; and, in modern times, California ‘s hills turn a feature golden-brown in summer. [ 130 ] Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran Desert ; upper Sonoran ( foothill regions and some coastal lands ), transition ( coastal areas and damp northeastern counties ) ; and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state of matter ‘s highest elevations. [ 131 ]
Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde. The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the shadow desert poppy and a diverseness of asters. Fremont white basswood and valley oak boom in the Central Valley. The amphetamine Sonoran zone includes the scrub belt, characterized by forests of little shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants. Nemophila, mint, Phacelia, Viola, and the California poppy ( Eschscholzia californica, the state flower ) besides boom in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world. [ 131 ] The transition zone includes most of California ‘s forests with the redwood ( Sequoia sempervirens ) and the “ big tree ” or giant star sequoia ( Sequoiadendron giganteum ), among the oldest living things on earth ( some are said to have lived at least 4,000 years ). Tanbark oak, California laurel, boodle pine, madrona, broadleaf maple, and Douglas-fir besides grow here. Forest floors are covered with swordfern, alumnroot, barrenwort, and trillium, and there are thickets of huckleberry, azalea, elder, and raving mad currant. characteristic fantastic flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip, and tiger and leopard lilies. [ 132 ] The senior high school elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine, crimson fir, and shore pine pine to thrive. Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus ; the alone Sierra puffball is besides found here. Right below the timber line, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow. At about 10,500 feet ( 3,200 thousand ), begins the Arctic zone, a unwooded region whose flora include a count of wildflowers, including Sierra primrose, chicken columbine, alpine buttercup, and alpine shooting star. [ 131 ] [ 133 ]
coarse plants that have been introduced to the state of matter include the eucalyptus, acacia, capsicum corner, geranium, and Scotch broom. The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower, Antioch Dunes evening primrose, Solano grass, San Clemente Island larkspur, salt marsh bird ‘s beak, McDonald ‘s rock-cress, and Santa Barbara Island liveforever. As of December 1997, 85 implant species were listed as threaten or endangered. [ 131 ] In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit, kangaroo rat, squirrel, and opossum. common birds include the owl, roadrunner, cactus wren, and respective species of hawk. The sphere ‘s reptile life include the sidewinder viper, defect tortoise, and horned frog. The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope, brown-footed woodrat, and ring-tailed cat. Birds alone to this zone are the California thresher, bushtit, and California condor. [ 131 ] [ 134 ] [ 135 ] [ 136 ] In the passage zone, there are colombian black-tailed deer, total darkness bears, grey foxes, cougars, bobcats, and Roosevelt wapiti. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone. In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are coarse besides. Birds such as the kingfisher, chickadee, towhee, and hummingbird boom here deoxyadenosine monophosphate well. [ 131 ] [ 137 ] The Canadian partition mammals include the batch weasel, snowshoe rabbit, and respective species of chipmunks. conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay, mountain chickadee, hermit thrush, American big dipper, and Townsend ‘s solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarce. While the gray-crowned fortunate finch is the entirely shuttlecock native to the high gear Arctic region, other bird species such as Anna ‘s hummingbird and Clark ‘s nuthatch. [ citation needed ] Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra pika, white-tailed jackrabbit, and the bighorn sheep. As of April 2003, the bighorn sheep was listed as endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer, coyote, batch leo, northern flicker, and several species of hawk and sparrow. [ 131 ]
aquatic life in California thrives, from the express ‘s mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow, aureate, and cutthroat. Migratory species of salmon are coarse as well. Deep-sea life forms include ocean sea bass, yellowfin tuna, barracuda, and several types of giant. native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migrant species. [ 131 ] As of April 2003, 118 California animals were on the federal endanger list ; 181 plants were listed as endangered or threatened. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox, Point Arena mountain dress hat, Pacific pocket mouse, salt marsh harvest mouse, Morro Bay kangaroo rat ( and five other species of kangaroo rat ), Amargosa vole, California least tern, California condor, dunce shrike, San Clemente sage sparrow, San Francisco garter snake, five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish. eleven butterflies are besides endangered [ 138 ] and two that are threatened are on the federal number. [ 139 ] [ 140 ] Among endanger animals are the coastal California gnatcatcher, Paiute cutthroat trout, southerly sea otter, and northerly spotted owl. California has a total of 290,821 acres ( 1,176.91 km2 ) of National Wildlife Refuges. [ 131 ] As of September 2010, 123 California animals were listed as either endangered or threatened on the federal list. [ 141 ] besides, as of the same year, 178 species of California plants were listed either as endangered or threatened on this union list. [ 141 ]

Rivers

The most big river system within California is formed by the Sacramento River and San Joaquin River, which are fed by and large by snowmelt from the west slope of the Sierra Nevada, and respectively drain the north and south halves of the Central Valley. The two rivers join in the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, flowing into the Pacific Ocean through San Francisco Bay. many major tributaries feed into the Sacramento–San Joaquin system, including the Pit River, Feather River and Tuolumne River. The Klamath and Trinity Rivers drain a large area in far northwestern California. The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California seashore, north and confederacy of San Francisco Bay, respectively. The Mojave River is the primary watercourse in the Mojave Desert, and the Santa Ana River drains much of the Transverse Ranges as it bisects southern California. The Colorado River forms the state ‘s southeast edge with Arizona. Most of California ‘s major rivers are dammed as region of two massive urine projects : the Central Valley Project, providing body of water for farming in the Central Valley, and the California State Water Project diverting water from northern to southerly California. The submit ‘s coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission .

Regions

Cities and towns

The state has 482 incorporated cities and towns, of which 460 are cities and 22 are towns. Under California police, the terms “ city ” and “ town ” are explicitly exchangeable ; the name of an incorporate municipality in the state of matter can either be “ City of ( name ) ” or “ Town of ( mention ) ”. [ 142 ] Sacramento became California ‘s first incorporated city on February 27, 1850. [ 143 ] San Jose, San Diego, and Benicia tied for California ‘s second incorporated city, each receiving incorporation on March 27, 1850. [ 144 ] [ 145 ] [ 146 ] Jurupa Valley became the submit ‘s most recent and 482nd incorporate municipality, on July 1, 2011. [ 147 ] [ 148 ] The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas : the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Riverside-San Bernardino Area, the San Diego metropolitan area, or the Sacramento metropolitan area .

Demographics

population

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 92,597
1860 379,994 310.4%
1870 560,247 47.4%
1880 864,694 54.3%
1890 1,213,398 40.3%
1900 1,485,053 22.4%
1910 2,377,549 60.1%
1920 3,426,861 44.1%
1930 5,677,251 65.7%
1940 6,907,387 21.7%
1950 10,586,223 53.3%
1960 15,717,204 48.5%
1970 19,953,134 27.0%
1980 23,667,902 18.6%
1990 29,760,021 25.7%
2000 33,871,648 13.8%
2010 37,253,956 10.0%
2020 39,538,223 6.1%
Sources: 1790–1990, 2000, 2010, 2020[151][152][8]
Chart does not include Indigenous population figures.
Studies indicate that the Native American
population in California in 1850 was close to 150,000
before declining to 15,000 by 1900.[153]

The United States Census Bureau reported that the population of California was 39,538,223 on April 1, 2020, a 6.13 % increase since the 2010 United States census. [ 8 ] The population was projected to reach forty million by 2020. [ 154 ] between 2000 and 2009, there was a natural increase of 3,090,016 ( 5,058,440 births minus 2,179,958 deaths ). [ 155 ] During this time period, international migration produced a net increase of 1,816,633 people while domestic migration produced a web decrease of 1,509,708, resulting in a net immigration of 306,925 people. [ 155 ] The submit of California ‘s own statistics show a population of 38,292,687 for January 1, 2009. [ 156 ] however, according to the Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, since 1990 about 3.4 million Californians have moved to other states, with most leaving to Texas, Nevada, and Arizona. [ 157 ] According to the Department of Finance, California ‘s population declined by 182,083 people in 2020, the first meter that there has been a internet decrease in population since 1900. [ 158 ] Within the Western hemisphere California is the second most populous sub-national administrative entity ( behind the state of São Paulo in Brazil ) [ 159 ] and third base most populous sub-national entity of any kind outside Asia ( in which wider class it besides ranks behind England in the United Kingdom, which has no administrative functions ). California ‘s population is greater than that of all but 34 countries of the worldly concern. [ 160 ] [ 161 ] The Greater Los Angeles Area is the 2nd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area, while Los Angeles, with closely half the population of New York City, is the second-largest city in the United States. conversely, San Francisco, with closely one-fourth the population density of Manhattan, is the most dumbly populate city in California and one of the most densely populate cities in the United States. besides, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states. [ 162 ] [ 163 ] Including Los Angeles, four of the top 20 most populous cities in the U.S. are in California : Los Angeles ( 2nd ), San Diego ( 8th ), San Jose ( 10th ), and San Francisco ( 17th ). The center of population of California is located four miles west-southwest of the city of Shafter, Kern County. [ note 2 ] As of 2018, the average biography anticipation in California was 80.8 years, above the national modal of 78.7, which is the second highest in the area. [ 165 ] Starting in the class 2010, for the first clock since the California Gold Rush, California-born residents make up the majority of the state ‘s population. [ 166 ] Along with the rest of the United States, California ‘s immigration pattern has besides shifted over the course of the belated 2000s to early on 2010s. [ 167 ] immigration from latin american english countries has dropped significantly with most immigrants immediately coming from Asia. [ 168 ] In sum for 2011, there were 277,304 immigrants. fifty-seven percentage came from asian countries versus 22 % from latin american countries. [ 168 ] final immigration from Mexico, previously the most common area of origin for new immigrants, has dropped to zero / less than zero since more mexican nationals are departing for their home nation than immigrating. [ 167 ] As a leave, it is projected that spanish american citizens will constitute 49 % of the population by 2060, rather of the previously projected 2050, due primarily to domestic births. [ 167 ] [ 169 ] The express ‘s population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased caper opportunities for lower-skilled workers. [ 170 ] The count of migrants arrested attempting to cross the mexican edge in the Southwest decreased from a high of 1.1 million in 2005 to 367,000 in 2011. [ 171 ] Despite these holocene trends, illegal aliens constituted an estimated 7.3 percentage of the country ‘s population, the third highest percentage of any submit in the nation, [ 172 ] [ note 3 ] totaling closely 2.6 million. [ 173 ] In particular, illegal immigrants tended to be concentrated in Los Angeles, Monterey, San Benito, Imperial, and Napa Counties—the latter four of which have meaning agricultural industries that depend on manual of arms labor. [ 174 ] More than half of illegal immigrants originate from Mexico. [ 173 ] The state of California and some California cities, including Los Angeles, Oakland and San Francisco, [ 175 ] have adopted chancel policies. [ 176 ]

raceway and ethnicity

According to the United States Census Bureau in 2018 the population self-identified as ( alone or in combination ) : [ 181 ] 72.1 % White ( including Hispanic Whites ), 36.8 % non-Hispanic whites, 15.3 % asian, 6.5 % Black or african American, 1.6 % native American and Alaska Native, 0.5 % native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and 3.9 % two or more races. By ethnicity, in 2018 the population was 60.7 % non-Hispanic ( of any race ) and 39.3 % Hispanic or Latino ( of any slipstream ). Hispanics are the largest individual ethnic group in California. [ 181 ] Non-Hispanic whites constituted 36.8 % of the express ‘s population. [ 181 ] Californios are the hispanic residents native to California, who make up the Spanish-speaking community that has existed in California since 1542, of varying mexican American / Chicano, Criollo Spaniard, and Mestizo lineage. [ 182 ] As of 2011, 75.1 % of California ‘s population younger than age 1 were minorities, meaning they had at least one rear who was not non-Hispanic white ( white Hispanics are counted as minorities ). [ 183 ] In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,200,000 residents. The state has the 5th largest population of african Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,250,000 residents. California ‘s asian american population is estimated at 4.4 million, constituting a third base of the nation ‘s entire. California ‘s native american population of 285,000 is the most of any submit. [ 184 ] According to estimates from 2011, California has the largest minority population in the United States by numbers, making up 60 % of the state population. [ 185 ] Over the past 25 years, the population of non-Hispanic whites has declined, while spanish american and asian populations have grown. between 1970 and 2011, non-Hispanic whites declined from 80 % of the state ‘s population to 40 %, while Hispanics grew from 32 % in 2000 to 38 % in 2011. [ 186 ] It is presently projected that Hispanics will rise to 49 % of the population by 2060, primarily due to domestic births rather than immigration. [ 169 ] With the worsen of immigration from Latin America, asian Americans now constitute the fastest growing racial/ethnic group in California ; this growth is primarily driven by immigration from China, India and the Philippines, respectively. [ 187 ]

Languages

Non-English Languages Spoken in California by more than 100,000 persons
Language Population
(as of 2016 )[188]
Spanish 10,672,610 speakers
Chinese 1,231,425
Tagalog 796,451
Vietnamese 559,932
Korean 367,523
Persian 203,770
Armenian 192,980
Arabic 191,954
Hindi 189,646
Russian 155,746
Punjabi 140,128
Japanese 139,430
French 123,956

english serves as California ‘s delaware jure and de facto official speech. In 2010, the Modern Language Association of America estimated that 57.02 % ( 19,429,309 ) of California residents old age 5 and older spoke lone English at home, while 42.98 % spoke another terminology at home plate. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 73 % of people who speak a speech other than English at home are able to speak english “ well ” or “ very well, ” while 9.8 % of them could not speak English at all. [ 189 ] Like most U.S. states ( 32 out of 50 ), California police enshrines English as its official speech, and has done then since the enactment of Proposition 63 by California voters. versatile politics agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the respective languages needed to reach their mean audiences. [ 190 ] [ 191 ] [ 192 ] In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than 100,000 persons, more than any other department of state in the nation. New York State, in second place, had nine languages other than English spoken by more than 100,000 persons. [ 193 ] The most common language spoken besides English was spanish, spoken by 28.46 % ( 9,696,638 ) of the population. [ 169 ] [ 167 ] With Asia contributing most of California ‘s new immigrants, California had the highest concentration nationwide of vietnamese and chinese speakers, the moment highest assiduity of Korean, and the third highest concentration of Tagalog speakers. [ 189 ] California has historically been one of the most linguistically divers areas in the populace, with more than 70 autochthonal languages derived from 64 root languages in six terminology families. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] A survey conducted between 2007 and 2009 identified 23 different autochthonal languages among California farmworkers. [ 196 ] All of California ‘s autochthonal languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward linguistic process revival. [ note 5 ] As a resultant role of the country ‘s increasing diverseness and migration from other areas across the nation and around the earth, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of talk american English in California since the late twentieth hundred. This variety, known as California English, has a vowel fault and respective early phonological processes that are different from varieties of american English used in other regions of the United States. [ 197 ]

religion

Religion in California (2014)[198]
religion percent
Protestantism 32%
Catholicism 28%
Unaffiliated 27%
Judaism 2%
Buddhism 2%
Hinduism 2%
Islam 1%
Mormonism 1%
Other 5%

The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California ‘s population in 2014 were the Catholic Church with 28 percentage, evangelical Protestants with 20 percentage, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percentage. together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percentage. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percentage of the population. The breakdown of other religions is 1 % Muslim, 2 % Hindu and 2 % Buddhist. [ 198 ] This is a change from 2008, when the population identified their religion with the Catholic Church with 31 percentage ; evangelical Protestants with 18 percentage ; and Mainline Protestants with 14 percentage. In 2008, those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percentage of the population. The dislocation of early religions in 2008 was 0.5 % Muslim, 1 % Hindu and 2 % Buddhist. [ 199 ] The American Jewish Year Book placed the total jewish population of California at about 1,194,190 in 2006. [ 200 ] According to the Association of Religion Data Archives ( ARDA ) the largest denominations by adherents in 2010 were the Catholic Church with 10,233,334 ; The Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints with 763,818 ; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 489,953. [ 201 ] The foremost priests to come to California were catholic missionaries from Spain. Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast, a good as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco. California continues to have a bombastic Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans support within its borders. California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco, the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States. A Pew Research Center review revealed that California is slightly less religious than the stay of the states : 62 percentage of Californians say they are “ absolutely certain ” of their belief in God, while in the state 71 percentage say therefore. The surveil besides revealed 48 percentage of Californians say religion is “ very important ”, compared to 56 percentage nationally. [ 202 ]

culture

The polish of California is a western polish and most distinctly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States, but besides, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences. As a border and coastal state, californian culture has been greatly influenced by respective large immigrant populations, particularly those from Latin America and Asia. [ 203 ] [ failed verification ] California has long been a subject of concern in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early twentieth century, fueled by the efforts of department of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal recourse destination, cheery and dry all class attack with easy access to the ocean and mountains. In the 1960s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers. The California Gold Rush of the 1850s is inactive seen as a symbol of California ‘s economic dash, which tends to generate engineering, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts .

Mass media and entertainment

Two big California landmarks representing the express ‘s mass media and entertainment : the Hollywood Sign ( fifty ) symbolizes the Los Angeles entertainment industry, while San Francisco ‘s Sutro Tower ( roentgen ) transmits numerous television and radio stations across the Bay Area Hollywood and the rest of the Los Angeles area is a major ball-shaped concentrate for entertainment, with the U.S. film diligence ‘s “ large Five ” major film studios ( Columbia, Disney, Paramount, Universal, and Warner Bros. ) being based in or around the area. The four major american television broadcast networks ( ABC, CBS, Fox and NBC ) all have product facilities and offices in the state. All four, plus the two major Spanish-language networks ( Telemundo and Univision ) each have at least two owned-and-operated television receiver stations in California, one in Los Angeles and one in the San Francisco Bay Area. The San Francisco Bay Area is home to several outstanding internet media and social media companies, including three of the “ boastfully Five ” engineering companies ( Apple, Facebook, and Google ) deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as other services such as Netflix, Pandora Radio, Twitter, Yahoo !, and YouTube. One of the oldest radio stations in the United States hush in being, KCBS ( AM ) in the Bay Area, was founded in 1909. Universal Music Group, one of the “ Big Four “ record labels, is based in Santa Monica. California is besides the birthplace of respective external music genres, including the Bakersfield healthy, Bay Area thrash alloy, g-funk, nu metallic, stoner rock, browse music, West Coast hip hop, and West Coast jazz .

Sports

California has nineteen major master sports league franchises, far more than any early state. The San Francisco Bay Area has six major league teams spread in its three major cities : San Francisco, San Jose, and Oakland, while the Greater Los Angeles Area is home to ten major league franchises. San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team. The NFL Super Bowl has been hosted in California 12 times at four unlike stadiums : Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, the Rose Bowl, Stanford Stadium, and San Diego ‘s Qualcomm Stadium. A thirteenth, Super Bowl LVI, was held at Sofi Stadium in Inglewood on February 13, 2022. [ 204 ] California has hanker had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl, among others. California is the only U.S. state to have hosted both the Summer and Winter Olympics. The 1932 and 1984 summer games were held in Los Angeles. Squaw Valley Ski Resort in the Lake Tahoe area hosted the 1960 Winter Olympics. Los Angeles will host the 2028 Summer Olympics, marking the fourthly time that California will have hosted the Olympic Games. [ 205 ] Multiple games during the 1994 FIFA World Cup took position in California, with the Rose Bowl hosting eight matches ( including the final examination ), while Stanford Stadium hosted six matches .

education

Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and free arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students. California ‘s populace educational organization is supported by a unique constituent amendment that requires a minimum annual fund floor for grades K–12 and community colleges that grows with the economy and scholar registration figures. [ 206 ] In 2016, California ‘s K–12 public school per-pupil spend was ranked 22nd in the nation ( $ 11,500 per scholar vs. $ 11,800 for the U.S. average ). [ 207 ] For 2012, California ‘s K–12 public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0.102 ( the U.S. average was 0.137 ), while paying the 7th most per employee, $ 49,000 ( the U.S. average was $ 39,000 ). [ 208 ] [ 209 ] [ 210 ] A 2007 discipline concluded that California ‘s public school system was “ break ” in that it suffered from overregulation. [ 211 ]
California populace postsecondary education is organized into three separate systems :

  • The state’s public research university system is the University of California (UC). As of fall 2011, the University of California had a combined student body of 234,464 students.[213] There are ten UC campuses. Nine are general campuses offering both undergraduate and graduate programs which culminate in the award of bachelor’s degrees, master’s degrees, and doctorates. There is one specialized campus, UC San Francisco, which is entirely dedicated to graduate education in health care, and is home to the UCSF Medical Center, the highest ranked hospital in California.[214] The system was originally intended to accept the top one-eighth of California high school students, but several of the campuses have become even more selective.[215][216][217] The UC system historically held exclusive authority to award the doctorate, but this has since changed and CSU now has limited statutory authorization to award a handful of types of doctoral degrees independently of UC.
  • The California State University (CSU) system has almost 430,000 students. The CSU (which takes the definite article in its abbreviated form, while UC does not) was originally intended to accept the top one-third of California high school students, but several of the campuses have become much more selective.[217][218] The CSU was originally authorized to award only bachelor’s and master’s degrees, and could award the doctorate only as part of joint programs with UC or private universities. Since then, CSU has been granted the authority to independently award several doctoral degrees (in specific academic fields that do not intrude upon UC’s traditional jurisdiction).
  • The California Community Colleges system provides lower-division coursework culminating in the associate degree, as well as basic skills and workforce training culminating in various kinds of certificates. It is the largest network of higher education in the U.S., composed of 112 colleges serving a student population of over 2.6million.

California is besides home to such celebrated private universities as Stanford University, the University of Southern California, the California Institute of Technology, and the Claremont Colleges. California has hundreds of other individual colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions .

Twinned regions

California has twinning arrangements with the area of Catalonia in Spain [ 219 ] and with the Province of Alberta in Canada. [ 220 ] [ 221 ]

economy

A tree map depicting the distribution of occupations across California California ‘s economy ranks among the largest in the world. As of 2019, the gross state product ( GSP ) was $ 3.2 trillion ( $ 80,600 per head ), the largest in the United States. [ 222 ] California is creditworthy for one seventh of the nation ‘s gross domestic product ( GDP ). [ 223 ] As of 2018, California ‘s nominal GDP is larger than all but four countries ( the United States, China, Japan, and Germany ). [ 224 ] [ 225 ] In terms of Purchasing power parity ( PPP ), [ 226 ] it is larger than all but eight countries ( the United States, China, India, Japan, Germany, Russia, Brazil and Indonesia ). [ 227 ] California ‘s economy is larger than Africa and Australia and is about a large as South America. [ 228 ] The country recorded total, non-farm use of 16,677,800 [ 229 ] as of September 2021 among 966,224 employer establishments [ 230 ] ( as of 2019 ). The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade wind, fare, and utilities ; government ; professional and occupation services ; education and health services ; and leisure and cordial reception. In output, the five largest sectors are fiscal services, followed by barter, fare, and utilities ; education and health services ; politics ; and manufacture. [ 231 ] California has an unemployment rate of 7.3 % as of October 2021. [ 229 ] California ‘s economy is dependent on trade and external refer commerce accounts for about one-fourth of the department of state ‘s economy. In 2008, California exported $ 144 billion deserving of goods, up from $ 134 billion in 2007 and $ 127 billion in 2006. [ 232 ] Computers and electronic products are California ‘s circus tent export, accounting for 42 percentage of all the state ‘s exports in 2008. [ 232 ]
agribusiness is an crucial sector in California ‘s economy. Farming-related sales more than quadrupled over the past three decades, from $ 7.3 billion in 1974 to about $ 31 billion in 2004. [ 233 ] This increase has occurred despite a 15 percentage decline in acreage devoted to farming during the period, and water system provide suffering from chronic instability. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive habit of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production. [ 233 ] In 2008, California ‘s 81,500 farms and ranches generated $ 36.2 billion products gross. [ 234 ] In 2011, that number grew to $ 43.5 billion products gross. [ 235 ] The Agriculture sector accounts for two percentage of the state of matter ‘s GDP and employs around three percentage of its sum work force. [ 236 ] According to the USDA in 2011, the three largest California agricultural products by value were milk and cream, shelled almonds, and grapes. [ 237 ]
Per head GDP in 2007 was $ 38,956, ranking eleventh in the nation. [ 238 ] Per capita income varies wide by geographic region and profession. The Central Valley is the most deprive, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage. According to a 2005 report by the Congressional Research Service, the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depress regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia. [ 239 ] Using the auxiliary poverty measure, California has a poverty pace of 23.5 %, the highest of any state in the nation. [ 240 ] however, using the official standard the poverty rate was alone 13.3 % as of 2017. [ 241 ] Many coastal cities include some of the wealthiest per-capita areas in the United States. The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley, in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties, have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com raid. In 2019, there were 1,042,027 millionaire households in the state, more than any other state in the nation. [ 242 ] In 2010, California residents were ranked foremost among the states with the best average credit score of 754. [ 243 ]

state finances

state spend increased from $ 56 billion in 1998 to $ 127 billion in 2011. [ 246 ] [ 247 ] California, with 12 % of the United States population, has one-third of the state ‘s social welfare recipients. [ 248 ] California has the third highest per head spend on benefit among the states, ampere well as the highest spend on wellbeing at $ 6.67 billion. [ 249 ] In January 2011, California ‘s total debt was at least $ 265 billion. [ 250 ] On June 27, 2013, Governor Jerry Brown signed a balance budget ( no deficit ) for the state, its first in decades ; however the state ‘s debt remains at $ 132 billion. [ 251 ] [ 252 ] With the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 and Proposition 55 in 2016, California immediately levies a 13.3 % maximum marginal income tax rate with ten tax brackets, ranging from 1 % at the bottom tax bracket of $ 0 annual individual income to 13.3 % for annual individual income over $ 1,000,000 ( though the top brackets are merely impermanent until Proposition 55 expires at the end of 2030 ). While suggestion 30 besides enacted a minimal state sales tax of 7.5 %, this sales tax increase was not extended by Proposition 55 and reverted to a former minimum department of state sales tax rate of 7.25 % in 2017. local governments can and do levy extra sales taxes in accession to this minimal rate. [ 253 ] All substantial property is taxable per annum ; the ad valorem tax is based on the property ‘s fair market value at the fourth dimension of purchase or the value of new construction. Property tax increases are capped at 2 % per annum or the rate of ostentation ( whichever is lower ), per Proposition 13 .

infrastructure

Energy

Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the area ‘s largest users of energy. however, because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental apparent motion, its per capita department of energy function is one of the smallest of any state in the United States. [ 254 ] due to the high electricity demand, California imports more electricity than any early state, primarily hydroelectric world power from states in the Pacific Northwest ( via Path 15 and Path 66 ) and coal- and natural gas-fired production from the abandon Southwest via Path 46. [ 255 ] As a leave of the state ‘s hard environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by 2020. [ 256 ] Currently, respective solar might plants such as the Solar Energy Generating Systems adeptness are located in the Mojave Desert. California ‘s wind farms include Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. The Tehachapi area is besides where the Tehachapi Energy Storage Project is located. [ 257 ] several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power. It would be possible to convert the full supply to 100 % renewable energy, including inflame, cooling and mobility, by 2050. [ 258 ] The state ‘s crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the big Midway-Sunset Oil Field. Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of country electricity coevals. California is besides home to two major nuclear office plants : Diablo Canyon and San Onofre, the latter having been shut down in 2013. More than 1,700 tons of radioactive waste are stored at San Onofre, [ 259 ] which sits in an area where there is a read of past tsunami. [ 260 ] Voters banned the approval of modern nuclear baron plants since the late 1970s because of concerns over radioactive waste administration. [ 261 ] [ note 6 ] In accession, several cities such as Oakland, Berkeley and Davis have declared themselves as nuclear-free zones .

transportation

California ‘s huge terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways ( ‘freeways ‘ ), limited-access roads ( ‘expressways ‘ ), and highways. California is known for its car culture, giving California ‘s cities a repute for austere traffic congestion. construction and maintenance of state of matter roads and statewide transportation plan are chiefly the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation, nicknamed “ Caltrans ”. The quickly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation system networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States. [ 263 ] [ 264 ] The Reason Foundation ‘s 19th annual Report on the performance of State Highway Systems ranked California ‘s highways the third-worst of any state, with Alaska second, and Rhode Island first. [ 265 ] The state has been a pioneer in road construction. One of the department of state ‘s more visible landmarks, the Golden Gate Bridge, was the longest abeyance bridge independent span in the populace at 4,200 feet ( 1,300 megabyte ) between 1937 ( when it opened ) and 1964. With its orange paint and bird’s-eye views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and besides accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge ( frequently abbreviated the “ Bay Bridge ” ), completed in 1936, transports about 280,000 vehicles per day on two-decks. Its two sections meet at Yerba Buena Island through the worldly concern ‘s largest diameter transportation bore tunnel, at 76 feet ( 23 m ) wide by 58 feet ( 18 thousand ) high. [ 266 ] The Arroyo Seco Parkway, connecting Los Angeles and Pasadena, opened in 1940 as the first expressway in the Western United States. [ 267 ] It was subsequently extended south to the Four Level Interchange in downtown Los Angeles, regarded as the beginning stack interchange always built. [ 268 ] Los Angeles International Airport ( LAX ), the 4th busiest airport in the world in 2018, and San Francisco International Airport ( SFO ), the 25th busiest airport in the earth in 2018, are major hubs for trans-Pacific and transcontinental traffic. There are about a twelve important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state. California besides has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the nation and creditworthy for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States. The Port of Oakland, fourth largest in the nation, besides handles craft entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the state . Map of California showing the primary coil roadways The California Highway Patrol is the largest statewide patrol representation in the United States in use with more than 10,000 employees. They are responsible for providing any police-sanctioned service to anyone on California ‘s state-maintained highways and on department of state property. The California Department of Motor Vehicles is by far the largest in North America. By the end of 2009, the California DMV had 26,555,006 driver ‘s licenses and ID cards on file. [ 269 ] In 2010, there were 1.17 million new vehicle registrations in force. [ 270 ]
Inter-city rail travel is provided by Amtrak California ; the three routes, the Capitol Corridor, Pacific Surfliner, and San Joaquin, are funded by Caltrans. These services are the busiest intercity railing lines in the United States outside the Northeast Corridor and ridership is continuing to set records. The routes are becoming increasingly popular over flying, particularly on the LAX-SFO route. [ 271 ] Integrated underpass and light rail networks are found in Los Angeles ( Metro Rail ) and San Francisco ( MUNI Metro ). faint railing systems are besides found in San Jose ( VTA ), San Diego ( San Diego Trolley ), Sacramento ( RT Light Rail ), and Northern San Diego County ( Sprinter ). Furthermore, commuter rail networks serve the San Francisco Bay Area ( ACE, BART, Caltrain, SMART ), Greater Los Angeles ( Metrolink ), and San Diego County ( Coaster ). The California High-Speed Rail Authority was created in 1996 by the state to implement an extensive 800-mile ( 1,300 kilometer ) track system. construction was approved by the voters during the November 2008 general election, [ 272 ] with the inaugural phase of structure estimated to cost $ 64.2 billion. [ 273 ] about all counties operate bus lines, and many cities operate their own city bus topology lines a well. Intercity bus travel is provided by Greyhound, Megabus, and Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach .

water

California ‘s interconnect water system is the populace ‘s largest, pull off over 40,000,000 acre-foot ( 49 km3 ) of water per year, centered on six chief systems of aqueducts and infrastructure projects. [ 274 ] Water function and conservation in California is a politically dissentious issue, as the state experiences periodic droughts and has to balance the demands of its big agrarian and urban sectors, specially in the arid southerly assign of the state. The state ‘s far-flung redistribution of water besides invites the frequent reject of environmentalists. The California Water Wars, a conflict between Los Angeles and the Owens Valley over water rights, is one of the most long-familiar examples of the clamber to secure adequate water supplies. [ 275 ] Former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger said : “ We ‘ve been in crisis for quite some time because we ‘re now 38 million people and not anymore 18 million people like we were in the late 60s. So it developed into a conflict between environmentalists and farmers and between the south and the north and between rural and urban. And everyone has been fighting for the concluding four decades about body of water. ” [ 276 ]

Government and politics

California budget 2022-2023

state of matter government

Democrats Jerry Brown and Eric Garcetti. Brown served twice as Governor of California and Garcetti is presently serving as Mayor of Los Angeles. The capital of California is located within Sacramento. [ 277 ] The submit is organized into three branches of politics —the executive branch consisting of the governor [ 278 ] and the other independently elected built-in officers ; the legislative arm consisting of the Assembly and Senate ; [ 279 ] and the judicial outgrowth consisting of the Supreme Court of California and lower courts. [ 280 ] The state besides allows vote propositions : lineal participation of the electorate by enterprise, referendum, recall, and ratification. [ 281 ] Before the passage of California Proposition 14 ( 2010 ), California allowed each political party to choose whether to have a close basal or a chief where only party members and independents right to vote. After June 8, 2010, when proposition 14 was approved, excepting only the United States president and county cardinal committee offices, [ 282 ] all candidates in the chief elections are listed on the ballot with their preferable party affiliation, but they are not the official campaigner of that party. [ 283 ] At the primary election, the two candidates with the exceed votes will advance to the general election careless of party affiliation. [ 283 ] If at a special basal election, one candidate receives more than 50 % of all the votes cast, they are elected to fill the void and no particular general election will be held. [ 283 ]

Executive arm

The California executive arm consists of the governor and seven other elected constituent officers : deputy governor, lawyer general, repository of state of matter, state restrainer, department of state treasurer, insurance commissioner, and state overseer of public teaching. They serve four-year terms and may be re-elected only once. [ 284 ]

legislative branch

The California State Legislature consists of a 40-member Senate and 80-member Assembly. Senators serve four-year terms and Assembly members two. Members of the Assembly are capable to term limits of six terms, and members of the Senate are subject to term limits of three terms .

Judicial branch

California ‘s legal system is explicitly based upon English common law [ 285 ] ( as is the case with all other states except Louisiana ) but carries a few features from spanish civil law, such as community property. California ‘s prison population grew from 25,000 in 1980 to over 170,000 in 2007. [ 286 ] Capital punishment is a legal form of punishment and the country has the largest “ Death Row “ population in the state ( though Oklahoma and Texas are far more active in carrying out executions ). [ 287 ] [ 288 ] California ‘s judiciary system is the largest in the United States with a entire of 1,600 judges ( the union arrangement has only about 840 ). At the apex is the seven-member Supreme Court of California, while the California Courts of Appeal serve as the primary appellate courts and the California Superior Courts serve as the primary trial courts. Justices of the Supreme Court and Courts of Appeal are appointed by the governor, but are subject to retention by the electorate every 12 years. The presidency of the express ‘s court organization is controlled by the Judicial Council, composed of the head department of justice of the California Supreme Court, 14 discriminative officers, four representatives from the State Bar of California, and one extremity from each house of the state legislature .

local government

Counties

California is divided into 58 counties. Per Article 11, section 1, of the Constitution of California, they are the legal subdivisions of the state. The county government provides countywide services such as jurisprudence enforcement, jails, elections and voter registration, vital records, property assessment and records, tax solicitation, public health, health manage, social services, libraries, flood tide restraint, fire protection, animal command, agricultural regulations, building inspections, ambulance services, and education departments in tear of maintaining statewide standards. [ 289 ] [ 290 ] In addition, the county serves as the local anesthetic government for all unincorporated areas. Each county is governed by an elected board of supervisors .

City and town governments

Incorporated cities and towns in California are either charter or general-law municipalities. [ 142 ] General-law municipalities owe their universe to country law and are consequently governed by it ; charter municipalities are governed by their own city or town charters. Municipalities incorporated in the nineteenth hundred tend to be lease municipalities. All ten-spot of the express ‘s most populous cities are charter cities. Most small cities have a council–manager form of government, where the elected city council appoints a city director to supervise the operations of the city. Some larger cities have a immediately elected mayor who oversees the city government. In many council-manager cities, the city council selects one of its members as a mayor, sometimes rotating through the council membership—but this type of mayoral position is primarily ceremony. The government of San Francisco is the entirely consolidate city-county in California, where both the city and county governments have been merged into one unite legal power .

School districts and particular districts

About 1,102 school districts, independent of cities and counties, handle California ‘s public education. [ 292 ] California school districts may be organized as elementary districts, high school districts, unite school districts combining elementary and eminent school grades, or community college districts. [ 292 ] There are about 3,400 special districts in California. [ 293 ] A particular zone, defined by California Government Code § 16271 ( vitamin d ) as “ any agency of the state for the local anesthetic performance of governmental or proprietary functions within limited boundaries ”, provides a limit range of services within a defined geographic area. The geographic area of a special district can spread across multiple cities or counties, or could consist of only a part of one. Most of California ‘s special districts are single-purpose districts, and provide one avail .

federal representation

The submit of California sends 53 members to the House of Representatives, [ 294 ] the nation ‘s largest congressional state of matter deputation. consequently, California besides has the largest number of electoral votes in national presidential elections, with 55. The stream speaker of the House of Representatives is the representative of California ‘s 12th district, Nancy Pelosi ; [ 295 ] Kevin McCarthy, representing the state ‘s 23rd district, is the House Minority Leader. [ 295 ] California is represented by U.S. senators Dianne Feinstein, a native and former mayor of San Francisco, and Alex Padilla, a native and early repository of state of California. Former U.S. senator Kamala Harris, a native, former district lawyer from San Francisco, early lawyer general of California, resigned on January 18, 2021, to assume her function as the current Vice President of the United States. In the 1992 U.S. Senate election, California became the first state of matter to elect a Senate deputation wholly composed of women, due to the victories of Feinstein and Barbara Boxer. [ 296 ] Set to follow the Vice President-Elect, Gov. Newsom appointed Secretary of State Alex Padilla to finish the rest of Harris ‘s term which ends in 2022, Padilla has vowed to run for the full terminus in that election bicycle. Padilla was sworn in on January 20, 2021, the same day as the Inauguration of President-Elect Joe Biden arsenic well as Harris. [ 297 ] [ 298 ]

Armed forces

In California, as of 2009, the U.S. Department of Defense had a sum of 117,806 active duty servicemembers of which 88,370 were Sailors or Marines, 18,339 were Airmen, and 11,097 were Soldiers, with 61,365 Department of Defense civilian employees. additionally, there were a total of 57,792 Reservists and Guardsman in California. [ 299 ] In 2010, Los Angeles County was the largest origin of military recruits in the United States by county, with 1,437 individuals enlisting in the military. [ 300 ] however, as of 2002, Californians were relatively under-represented in the military as a proportion to its population. [ 301 ] In 2000, California, had 2,569,340 veterans of United States military serve : 504,010 served in World War II, 301,034 in the Korean War, 754,682 during the Vietnam War, and 278,003 during 1990–2000 ( including the irani Gulf War ). [ 302 ] As of 2010, there were 1,942,775 veterans living in California, of which 1,457,875 served during a period of armed conflict, and equitable over four thousand served before World War II ( the largest population of this group of any submit ). [ 303 ] California ‘s military forces dwell of the Army and Air National Guard, the naval and state military reserve ( militia ), and the California Cadet Corps. On August 5, 1950, a nuclear-capable United States Air Force Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber carrying a nuclear turkey crashed curtly after takeoff from Fairfield-Suisun Air Force Base. Brigadier General Robert F. Travis, command fly of the bomber, was among the dead. [ 304 ]

ideology

California has an idiosyncratic political culture compared to the lie of the country, and is sometimes regarded as a trendsetter. [ 306 ] In socio-cultural mores and home politics, Californians are perceived as more liberal than other Americans, particularly those who live in the inland states. In the 2016 United States presidential election, California had the third highest share of democratic votes behind the District of Columbia and Hawaii. [ 307 ] In the 2020 United States presidential election, it had the 6th highest behind the District of Columbia, Vermont, Massachusetts, Maryland, and Hawaii. According to the Cook Political Report, California contains five of the 15 most democratic congressional districts in the United States. Among the political idiosyncrasies, California was the second state to recall their express governor, the second base express to legalize miscarriage, and the only state of matter to ban marriage for gay couples twice by vote ( including Proposition 8 in 2008 ). Voters besides passed Proposition 71 in 2004 to fund root cell inquiry, making California the second state of matter to legalize stem cell research after New Jersey, and Proposition 14 in 2010 to completely change the state ‘s primary election procedure. California has besides experienced disputes over water rights ; and a tax revolt, culminating with the passage of Proposition 13 in 1978, limiting state property taxes. California voters have rejected affirmative action on multiple occasions, most recently in November 2020. The state ‘s vogue towards the Democratic Party and aside from the Republican Party can be seen in express elections. From 1899 to 1939, California had republican governors. Since 1990, California has by and large elected democratic candidates to federal, submit and local anesthetic offices, including stream Governor Gavin Newsom ; however, the country has elected Republican Governors, though many of its republican Governors, such as Arnold Schwarzenegger, tend to be considered tone down Republicans and more centrist than the national party. respective political movements have advocated for californian independence. The California National Party and the California Freedom Coalition both recommend for californian independence along the lines of progressivism and civil nationalism. [ 308 ] The Yes California movement attempted to organize an independence referendum via ballot first step for 2019, which was then postponed. [ 309 ] The Democrats besides nowadays hold a supermajority in both houses of the state legislature. There are 60 Democrats and 20 Republicans in the Assembly ; and 29 Democrats and 11 Republicans in the Senate. The tendency towards the Democratic Party is most obvious in presidential elections. From 1952 through 1988, California was a republican leaning country, with the party carrying the country ‘s electoral votes in nine of ten elections, with 1964 as the exception. Southern California Republicans Richard Nixon and Ronald Reagan were both elected twice as the 37th and 40th U.S. Presidents, respectively. however, Democrats have won all of California ‘s electoral votes for the end eight elections, starting in 1992. In the United States House, the Democrats held a 34–19 edge in the CA delegating of the hundred-and-tenth United States Congress in 2007. As the consequence of gerrymander, the districts in California were normally dominated by one or the other party, and few districts were considered competitive. In 2008, Californians passed Proposition 20 to empower a 14-member autonomous citizen commission to redraw districts for both local politicians and Congress. After the 2012 elections, when the new system took impression, Democrats gained four seats and held a 38–15 majority in the deputation. Following the 2018 midterm House elections, Democrats won 46 out of 53 congressional house seats in California, leaving Republicans with seven. In cosmopolitan, democratic persuasiveness is centered in the populous coastal regions of the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the San Francisco Bay Area. republican intensity is placid greatest in eastern parts of the country. Orange County had remained largely republican until the 2016 and 2018 elections, in which a majority of the county ‘s votes were cast for democratic candidates. [ 310 ] [ 311 ] One sketch ranked Berkeley, Oakland, Inglewood and San Francisco in the crown 20 most liberal american cities ; and Bakersfield, Orange, Escondido, Garden Grove, and Simi Valley in the circus tent 20 most cautious cities. [ 312 ] In February 2021, out of the 25,166,581 people eligible to vote, 22,154,304 people were registered to vote. [ 313 ] Of the people registered, the three largest registered groups were Democrats ( 10,228,144 ), Republicans ( 5,347,377 ), and No Party Preference ( 5,258,223 ). [ 313 ] Los Angeles County had the largest number of registered Democrats ( 3,043,535 ) and Republicans ( 995,112 ) of any county in the country. [ 313 ] In a 2020 study, California was ranked as the tenth easy state for citizens to vote in. [ 314 ]

See besides

Notes

  1. ^[49][50] Since 1565, spanish galleons had been visiting Manila in the Philippines to make craft .
  2. ^[164] The coordinates of the focus on of population are at .
  3. ^ Behind Nevada and Arizona .
  4. ^ Persons of Hispanic or Latino origin are not distinguished between total and overtone ancestry
  5. ^ The pursue are a list of the autochthonal languages : Root languages of California : athapaskan Family : Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula ; Hokan Family : pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko ; algonquian Family : Whilkut, Yurok ; Yukian Family : Wappo ; penutian Family : Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts ; Hokan Family : Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave ; uto-aztecan Family : Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi
  6. ^[262] Minnesota besides has a moratorium on construction of nuclear power plants, which has been in target since 1994 .

References

Citations

Works cited

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