Canada – Wikipedia

country in North America
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Canada is a nation in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northbound into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million hearty kilometres ( 3.85 million feather miles ), making it the world ‘s second-largest area by sum area. Its southerly and western frame with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres ( 5,525 security service ), is the world ‘s longest bi-national farming molding. Canada ‘s capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. autochthonal peoples have continuously inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years. Beginning in the sixteenth century, british and french expeditions explored and later settled along the Atlantic coast. As a consequence of respective armed conflicts, France ceded about all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three british North american colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces. This began an accretion of provinces and territories and a summons of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal addiction on the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Canada is a parliamentary majority rule and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition. The country ‘s head of government is the choice minister —who holds office by virtue of their ability to command the confidence of the elected House of Commons —and is appointed by the governor general, representing the monarch, who serves as head of express. The country is a Commonwealth region and is officially bilingual at the federal grade. It ranks among the highest in external measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic exemption, and education. It is one of the universe ‘s most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada ‘s long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impingement on its economy and culture. A highly develop country, Canada has the 24th highest nominal per-capita income globally and the sixteenth-highest rate in the Human Development Index. Its advanced economy is the eighth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed external trade networks. Canada is part of respective major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ), the World Trade Organization ( WTO ), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Arctic Council, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the Organization of American States .


While a diverseness of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the appoint is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning “ greenwich village ” or “ settlement ”. [ 10 ] In 1535, autochthonal inhabitants of the contemporary Quebec City region used the password to direct french internet explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. [ 11 ] Cartier belated used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the stallion sphere subject to Donnacona ( the chief at Stadacona ) ; [ 11 ] by 1545, european books and maps had begun referring to this modest region along the Saint Lawrence River as Canada. [ 11 ] From the 16th to the early eighteenth hundred, “ Canada “ referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. [ 12 ] In 1791, the area became two british colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada. These two colonies were jointly named the Canadas until their union as the british Province of Canada in 1841. [ 13 ] Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal identify for the newly area at the London Conference, and the parole Dominion was conferred as the country ‘s title. [ 14 ] By the 1950s, the condition Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a “ Realm of the Commonwealth ”. [ 15 ] The government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using Dominion in the statutes of Canada in 1951. [ 16 ] [ 17 ] [ 18 ] The Canada Act 1982, which brought the constitution of Canada amply under canadian control, referred alone to Canada. Later that year, the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day. [ 19 ] The condition Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. [ 20 ]


autochthonal peoples

autochthonal peoples in contemporary Canada include the inaugural Nations, Inuit, and Métis, [ 21 ] the last being of blend descent who originated in the mid-17th hundred when First Nations people married european settlers and subsequently developed their own identity. [ 21 ] The first inhabitants of North America are broadly hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by direction of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago. [ 22 ] [ 23 ] The paleo-american archaeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human inhabitancy in Canada. [ 24 ] The characteristics of autochthonal societies included permanent wave settlements, agriculture, complex social hierarchies, and trade networks. [ 25 ] [ 26 ] Some of these cultures had collapsed by the time european explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archaeological investigations. [ 27 ] The Indigenous population at the time of the foremost european settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000 [ 28 ] and two million, [ 29 ] with a number of 500,000 accepted by Canada ‘s Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. [ 30 ] As a consequence of european colonization, the Indigenous population declined by forty to eighty percentage, and respective First Nations, such as the Beothuk, disappeared. [ 31 ] The decline is attributed to several causes, including the transfer of european diseases, such as influenza, measles, and smallpox to which they had no natural immunity, [ 28 ] [ 32 ] conflicts over the fur craft, conflicts with the colonial authorities and settlers, and the passing of autochthonal lands to settlers and the subsequent collapse of respective nations ‘ autonomy. [ 33 ] [ 34 ] Although not without conflict, european Canadians ‘ early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively passive. [ 35 ] First Nations and Métis peoples played a critical partially in the growth of european colonies in Canada, particularly for their function in assisting european coureur des bois and voyageurs in their explorations of the celibate during the north american fur trade. [ 36 ] The Crown and Indigenous peoples began interactions during the european colonization time period, though the Inuit, in general, had more specify interaction with european settlers. [ 37 ] however, from the late eighteenth hundred, european Canadians encouraged Indigenous peoples to assimilate into their own polish. [ 38 ] These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries with force integration and relocations. [ 39 ] A time period of right is afoot, which started with the appointee of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada by the Government of Canada in 2008. [ 40 ]

european colonization

It is believed that the beginning european to explore the east coast of Canada was Norse explorer Leif Erikson. [ 41 ] [ 42 ] In approximately 1000 AD, the Norse built a minor camping that lone lasted a few years at L’Anse aux Meadows on the northerly peak of Newfoundland. No farther european exploration occurred until 1497, when italian mariner John Cabot explored and claimed Canada ‘s Atlantic coast in the mention of King Henry VII of England. [ 44 ] In 1534, french internet explorer Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of Saint Lawrence where, on July 24, he planted a 10-metre ( 33 foot ) hybridization bearing the words “ Long Live the King of France ” and took monomania of the territory New France in the name of King Francis I. [ 45 ] The early sixteenth hundred saw european mariners with navigational techniques pioneered by the Basque and Portuguese establish seasonal worker whale and fish outposts along the Atlantic coast. [ 46 ] In general, early settlements during the Age of Discovery appear to have been ephemeral due to a combination of the coarse climate, problems with navigating trade routes and competing outputs in Scandinavia. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert, by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I, founded St. John ‘s, Newfoundland, as the first North American English seasonal camp. [ 49 ] In 1600, the french established their beginning seasonal trade mail at Tadoussac along the Saint Lawrence. french internet explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603 and established the first permanent wave year-round european settlements at Port Royal ( in 1605 ) and Quebec City ( in 1608 ). [ 50 ] Among the colonists of New France, Canadiens extensively settled the Saint Lawrence River valley and Acadians settled the contemporary Maritimes, while fur traders and Catholic missionaries explored the Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and the Mississippi watershed to Louisiana. [ 51 ] The Beaver Wars broke out in the mid-17th hundred over restraint of the north american fur deal. [ 52 ] The English established extra settlements in Newfoundland in 1610 along with settlements in the Thirteen Colonies to the south. [ 53 ] [ 54 ] A series of four wars erupted in colonial North America between 1689 and 1763 ; the later wars of the menstruation constituted the north american theater of the Seven Years ‘ War. [ 55 ] Mainland Nova Scotia came under british govern with the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, and Canada and most of New France came under british rule in 1763 after the Seven Years ‘ War. [ 56 ]

british North America

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 established First Nation treaty rights, created the Province of Quebec out of New France, and annex Cape Breton Island to Nova Scotia. [ 19 ] St. John ‘s Island ( nowadays Prince Edward Island ) became a separate colony in 1769. [ 57 ] To avert dispute in Quebec, the british Parliament passed the Quebec Act 1774, expanding Quebec ‘s district to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. [ 58 ] More importantly, the Quebec Act afforded Quebec special autonomy and rights of self-administration at a time when the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly agitating against british convention. [ 59 ] It re-established the french speech, Catholic religion, and French civil law there, staving off the growth of an independence movement in contrast to the Thirteen Colonies. [ 60 ] The Proclamation and the Quebec Act in turn angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, further fuelling anti-British opinion in the years prior to the american Revolution. [ 19 ] After the successful American War of Independence, the 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized the independence of the newly formed United States and set the terms of peace, ceding british north american territories south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River to the raw state. [ 61 ] The American war of independence besides caused a large emigration of Loyalists, the settlers who had fought against american independence. many moved to Canada, peculiarly Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the demographic distribution of the existing territories. New Brunswick was in turn split from Nova Scotia as part of a reorganization of Loyalist settlements in the Maritimes, which led to the incorporation of Saint John, New Brunswick, as Canada ‘s first city. [ 62 ] To accommodate the inflow of english-speaking Loyalists in Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province of Canada into French-speaking Lower Canada ( late Quebec ) and english-speaking Upper Canada ( late Ontario ), granting each its own elected legislative assembly. [ 63 ]
The Canadas were the main front in the War of 1812 between the United States and the United Kingdom. peace came in 1815 ; no boundaries were changed. [ 64 ] Immigration resumed at a higher horizontal surface, with over 960,000 arrivals from Britain between 1815 and 1850. [ 65 ] New arrivals included refugees escaping the Great irish Famine a well as Gaelic -speaking Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances. [ 66 ] infectious diseases killed between 25 and 33 percentage of Europeans who immigrated to Canada before 1891. [ 28 ] The desire for responsible government resulted in the abortive Rebellions of 1837. [ 67 ] The Durham Report subsequently recommended creditworthy government and the assimilation of french Canadians into english culture. [ 19 ] The Act of Union 1840 merged the Canadas into a joined state of Canada and creditworthy government was established for all provinces of British North America east of Lake Superior by 1855. [ 68 ] The sign of the Oregon Treaty by Britain and the United States in 1846 ended the Oregon boundary challenge, extending the border west along the 49th parallel. This paved the way for british colonies on Vancouver Island ( 1849 ) and in British Columbia ( 1858 ). [ 69 ] The Anglo-Russian Treaty of Saint Petersburg ( 1825 ) established the border along the Pacific seashore, but, even after the US Alaska Purchase of 1867, disputes continued about the claim line of the Alaska–Yukon and Alaska–BC boundary line. [ 70 ]

confederation and expansion

Following several constituent conferences, the british North America Act 1867 officially proclaimed canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially with four provinces : Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] Canada assumed control of Rupert ‘s Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where the Métis ‘ grievances ignited the Red River Rebellion and the universe of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. [ 73 ] british Columbia and Vancouver Island ( which had been united in 1866 ) joined the confederation in 1871 on the promise of a transcontinental railway extending to Victoria in the province within 10 years, [ 74 ] while Prince Edward Island joined in 1873. [ 75 ] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, Parliament created the Yukon Territory. Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905. [ 75 ] Between 1871 and 1896, about one quarter of the canadian population emigrated southwards, to the U.S. [ 76 ] To open the West and encourage european immigration, Parliament approved sponsoring the construction of three transcontinental railways ( including the Canadian Pacific Railway ), opening the prairies to liquidation with the Dominion Lands Act, and establishing the North-West Mounted Police to assert its agency over this territory. [ 77 ] [ 78 ] This period of westward expansion and state build resulted in the displacement of many Indigenous peoples of the canadian Prairies to “ amerind reserves “, [ 79 ] clearing the way for heathen european pulley settlements. [ 80 ] This caused the crumble of the Plains Bison in western Canada and the initiation of european cattle farms and wheat fields dominating the down. [ 81 ] The Indigenous peoples saw far-flung dearth and disease due to the loss of the bison and their traditional hunt lands. [ 82 ] The union government did provide hand brake relief, on condition of the Indigenous peoples moving to the reserves. [ 83 ] During this time, Canada introduced the Indian Act extending its control over the first gear Nations to education, politics and legal rights. [ 84 ]

early twentieth hundred

1918 canadian War bond posters depicting three french women pulling a plow that had been constructed for horses . french translation of the post horse roughly translates as “ They serve France–Everyone can serve ; Buy Victory Bonds ” . The same poster in English, with insidious differences in text. “ They serve France—How can I serve Canada ? Buy Victory Bonds ”. Because Britain still maintained control of Canada ‘s foreign affairs under the british North America Act, 1867, its declaration of war in 1914 mechanically brought Canada into World War I. [ 85 ] Volunteers sent to the Western Front belated became depart of the Canadian Corps, which played a solid function in the Battle of Vimy Ridge and other major engagements of the war. [ 86 ] Out of approximately 625,000 Canadians who served in World War I, some 60,000 were killed and another 172,000 were wounded. [ 87 ] The Conscription Crisis of 1917 erupted when the Unionist Cabinet ‘s proposal to augment the military ‘s dwindling number of active members with conscription was met with vehement objections from french-speaking Quebecers. [ 88 ] The Military Service Act brought in compulsory military service, though it, coupled with disputes over french language schools external Quebec, deeply alienated Francophone Canadians and temporarily split the Liberal Party. [ 88 ] In 1919, Canada joined the League of Nations independently of Britain, [ 86 ] and the Statute of Westminster 1931 affirmed Canada ‘s independence. [ 89 ] The Great Depression in Canada during the early on 1930s saw an economic downturn, leading to hardship across the country. [ 90 ] In reception to the downturn, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation ( CCF ) in Saskatchewan introduced many elements of a social welfare state ( as pioneered by Tommy Douglas ) in the 1940s and 1950s. [ 91 ] On the advice of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King, war with Germany was declared effective September 10, 1939, by King George VI, seven days after the United Kingdom. The delay underscored Canada ‘s independence. [ 86 ] The first base canadian Army units arrived in Britain in December 1939. In all, over a million Canadians served in the arm forces during World War II and approximately 42,000 were killed and another 55,000 were wounded. [ 92 ] canadian troops played important roles in many key battles of the war, including the fail 1942 Dieppe Raid, the Allied invasion of Italy, the Normandy landings, the Battle of Normandy, and the Battle of the Scheldt in 1944. [ 86 ] Canada provided mental hospital for the Dutch monarchy while that country was occupied and is credited by the Netherlands for major contributions to its liberation from Nazi Germany. [ 93 ] The canadian economy boomed during the war as its industries manufactured military materiel for Canada, Britain, China, and the Soviet Union. [ 86 ] Despite another Conscription Crisis in Quebec in 1944, Canada finished the war with a large army and strong economy. [ 94 ]

contemporary era

The fiscal crisis of the Great Depression had led the Dominion of Newfoundland to relinquish creditworthy government in 1934 and become a Crown colony ruled by a british governor. [ 95 ] After two referendums, Newfoundlanders voted to join Canada in 1949 as a province. [ 96 ] Canada ‘s post-war economic emergence, combined with the policies of consecutive liberal governments, led to the egress of a new canadian identity, marked by the adoption of the Maple Leaf Flag in 1965, [ 97 ] the execution of official bilingualism ( english and french ) in 1969, [ 98 ] and the institution of official multiculturalism in 1971. [ 99 ] Socially democratic programs were besides instituted, such as Medicare, the Canada Pension Plan, and Canada Student Loans, though peasant governments, peculiarly Quebec and Alberta, opposed many of these as incursions into their jurisdictions. [ 100 ]
ultimately, another series of constitutional conferences resulted in the UK ‘s Canada Act 1982, the patriation of Canada ‘s fundamental law from the United Kingdom, coincident with the initiation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] [ 103 ] Canada had established complete sovereignty as an freelancer nation, although the monarch is retained as sovereign. [ 104 ] [ 105 ] In 1999, Nunavut became Canada ‘s third base territory after a serial of negotiations with the union government. [ 106 ] At the like time, Quebec undergo fundamental social and economic changes through the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, giving birth to a worldly nationalist movement. [ 107 ] The radical Front de libération du Québec ( FLQ ) ignited the October Crisis with a series of bombings and kidnappings in 1970 [ 108 ] and the sovereignist Parti Québécois was elected in 1976, organizing an abortive referendum on sovereignty-association in 1980. Attempts to accommodate Quebec nationalism constitutionally through the Meech Lake Accord failed in 1990. [ 109 ] This led to the formation of the Bloc Québécois in Quebec and the animation of the Reform Party of Canada in the West. [ 110 ] [ 111 ] A second referendum followed in 1995, in which sovereignty was rejected by a slender margin of 50.6 to 49.4 percentage. [ 112 ] In 1997, the Supreme Court ruled unilateral secession by a state would be unconstitutional and the Clarity Act was passed by fantan, outlining the terms of a negociate deviation from Confederation. [ 109 ] In addition to the issues of Quebec sovereignty, a total of crises shook canadian club in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These included the explosion of Air India Flight 182 in 1985, the largest mass murder in canadian history ; [ 113 ] the École Polytechnique slaughter in 1989, a university shooting targeting female students ; [ 114 ] and the Oka Crisis of 1990, [ 115 ] the first of a number of fierce confrontations between the government and autochthonal groups. [ 116 ] Canada besides joined the Gulf War in 1990 as separate of a United States–led alliance force and was active in several peacekeeping missions in the 1990s, including the UNPROFOR mission in the former Yugoslavia. [ 117 ] Canada sent troops to Afghanistan in 2001 but declined to join the United States–led invasion of Iraq in 2003. [ 118 ] In 2011, canadian forces participated in the NATO-led intervention into the Libyan Civil War, [ 119 ] and besides became involved in battling the Islamic State insurgency in Iraq in the mid-2010s. [ 120 ] The COVID-19 pandemic in Canada began on January 27, 2020, with wide social and economic break. [ 121 ] In 2021, the remains of hundreds of autochthonal people were discovered near the erstwhile sites of canadian indian residential schools. [ 122 ] Administered by the Canadian Catholic Church and funded by the canadian government from 1828 to 1997, these boarding schools attempted to assimilate autochthonal children into Euro-Canadian culture. [ 123 ]


refer to caption A topographical map of Canada, in arctic projection ( for 90° W ), showing elevations shaded from green to brown ( higher ) By total area ( including its waters ), Canada is the second-largest state in the world, after Russia. [ 124 ] By land area entirely, however, Canada ranks fourthly, due to having the world ‘s largest proportion of fresh water lakes. [ 125 ] Stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east, along the Arctic Ocean to the north, and to the Pacific Ocean in the west, the area encompasses 9,984,670 km2 ( 3,855,100 sq nautical mile ) of territory. [ 126 ] Canada besides has huge maritime terrain, with the world ‘s longest coastline of 243,042 kilometres ( 151,019 nautical mile ). [ 127 ] [ 128 ] In accession to sharing the universe ‘s largest land surround with the United States —spanning 8,891 kilometer ( 5,525 myocardial infarction ) —Canada shares a maritime boundary with Greenland to the northeast and with the France ‘s overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon to the southeast. [ 129 ] Canada is besides home plate to the earth ‘s northernmost settlement, canadian Forces Station Alert, on the northerly tip of Ellesmere Island —latitude 82.5°N—which lies 817 kilometres ( 508 mi ) from the North Pole. [ 130 ] The physical geography of Canada is wide varied. boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is outstanding in northern Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the relatively flat canadian Prairies in the southwest facilitate productive agriculture. [ 126 ] The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River ( in the southeast ) where the lowlands master of ceremonies a lot of Canada ‘s economic output. [ 126 ] Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 of which are greater than 100 km2 ( 39 sq security service ) —containing much of the global ‘s fresh body of water. [ 131 ] [ 132 ] There are besides fresh-water glaciers in the canadian Rockies, the Coast Mountains and the Arctic Cordillera. [ 133 ] Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. [ 134 ]


Canada is divided into fifteen mundane and five nautical ecozones. [ 135 ] These ecozones encompass over 80,000 classified species of canadian wildlife, with an equal number yet to be formally recognized or discovered. [ 136 ] due to human activities, incursive species and environmental issues in the country, there are presently more than 800 species at risk of being lost. [ 137 ] Over half of Canada ‘s landscape is intact and relatively free of homo development. [ 138 ] The boreal afforest of Canada is considered to be the largest intact forest on Earth, with approximately 3,000,000 km2 ( 1,200,000 sq myocardial infarction ) undisturbed by roads, cities or industry. [ 139 ] Since the end of the last arctic time period, Canada has consisted of eight discrete forest regions, [ 140 ] with 42 percentage of its domain area covered by forests ( approximately 8 percentage of the earth ‘s forested nation ). [ 141 ] approximately 12.1 percentage of the state ‘s landmass and fresh water are conservation areas, including 11.4 percentage designated as protect areas. [ 142 ] approximately 13.8 percentage of its territorial waters are conserved, including 8.9 percentage designated as protected areas. [ 142 ] Canada ‘s inaugural National Park, Banff National Park established in 1885, spans 6,641 squarely kilometres ( 2,564 sq myocardial infarction ) [ 143 ] of mountainous terrain, with many glaciers and internal-combustion engine fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. [ 144 ] Canada ‘s oldest peasant park, Algonquin Provincial Park, established in 1893, covers an area of 7,653.45 square kilometres ( 2,955.01 sq nautical mile ). It is dominated by old-growth forest with over 2,400 lakes and 1,200 kilometres of streams and rivers. [ 145 ] Lake Superior National Marine Conservation Area is the populace ‘s largest fresh water protected area, spanning approximately 10,000 square kilometres ( 3,900 sq mi ) of lakebed, its overlaying fresh water, and consort shoreline on 60 square kilometres ( 23 sq nautical mile ) of islands and mainland. [ 146 ] Canada ‘s largest national wildlife region is the Scott Islands Marine National Wildlife Area, which spans 11,570.65 square kilometres ( 4,467.45 sq mile ) [ 147 ] and protects critical breeding and cuddle habitat for over 40 percentage of British Columbia ‘s seabirds. [ 148 ] Canada ‘s 18 UNESCO Biosphere Reserves cover a total area of 235,000 square kilometres ( 91,000 sq myocardial infarction ). [ 149 ]


Köppen climate classification types of Canada average winter and summer high gear temperatures across Canada vary from area to region. Winters can be harsh in many parts of the state, particularly in the inside and Prairie provinces, which experience a continental climate, where casual average temperatures are near −15 °C ( 5 °F ), but can drop below −40 °C ( −40 °F ) with severe tip chills. [ 150 ] In non-coastal regions, coke can cover the ground for about six months of the class, while in parts of the north snow can persist year-round. coastal british Columbia has a temperate climate, with a meek and showery winter. On the east and west coasts, modal gamey temperatures are generally in the low 20s °C ( 70s °F ), while between the coasts, the average summer high temperature ranges from 25 to 30 °C ( 77 to 86 °F ), with temperatures in some home locations occasionally exceeding 40 °C ( 104 °F ). [ 151 ] much of Northern Canada is covered by ice and permafrost ; however, the future of the permafrost is changeable because the Arctic has been warming at three times the global average as a result of climate change in Canada. [ 152 ] Canada ‘s annual modal temperature over country has warmed by 1.7 °C ( 3.1 °F ), with changes ranging from 1.1 to 2.3 °C ( 2.0 to 4.1 °F ) in respective regions, since 1948. [ 153 ] The pace of warming has been higher across the North and in the Prairies. [ 153 ] In the southern regions of Canada, air befoulment from both Canada and the United States—caused by metallic element smelt, burning char to might utilities, and vehicle emissions—has resulted in acidic rain, which has badly impacted waterways, forest increase and agrarian productiveness in Canada. [ 154 ]

Government and politics

Canada is described as a “ wide democracy “, [ 155 ] with a custom of liberalism, [ 156 ] and an egalitarian, [ 157 ] mince political ideology. [ 158 ] An emphasis on social department of justice has been a distinguishing element of Canada ‘s political acculturation. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] Peace, order, and good government, alongside an Implied Bill of Rights, are founding principles of the canadian government. [ 161 ] [ 162 ]
At the federal flush, Canada has been dominated by two relatively centrist parties practising “ brokerage house politics ”, [ a ] the centre-left leaning Liberal Party of Canada and the centre-right list Conservative Party of Canada ( or its predecessors ). [ 169 ] The historically prevailing Liberal Party position themselves at the center of the canadian political spectrum, [ 170 ] with the Conservative Party positioned on the right and the New Democratic Party occupying the leave. [ 171 ] [ 172 ] Far-right and far-left politics have never been a big force in canadian club. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] Five parties had representatives elected to the Parliament in the 2021 election —the Liberal Party, who presently form a minority government ; the Conservative Party, who are the Official Opposition ; the New Democratic Party ; the Bloc Québécois ; and the Green Party of Canada. [ 175 ] Canada has a parliamentary system within the context of a constitutional monarchy —the monarchy of Canada being the foundation of the administrator, legislative, and judicial branches. [ 176 ] [ 177 ] [ 178 ] The reigning monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who is besides monarch of 14 other Commonwealth countries and each of Canada ‘s 10 provinces. The person who is the canadian sovereign is the same as the british monarch, although the two institutions are separate. [ 179 ] The monarch appoints a spokesperson, the governor general, with the advice of the prime minister, to carry out most of her federal royal duties in Canada. [ 180 ] [ 181 ] While the monarchy is the source of authority in Canada, in drill its position is chiefly symbolic. [ 178 ] [ 182 ] [ 183 ] The use of the administrator powers is directed by the Cabinet, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the elected House of Commons and chosen and headed by the prime minister ( at confront Justin Trudeau ), [ 184 ] the head of government. The governor general or sovereign may, though, in certain crisis situations exercise their exponent without ministerial advice. [ 182 ] To ensure the constancy of government, the governor cosmopolitan will normally appoint as prime minister the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Commons. [ 185 ] The Prime Minister ‘s Office ( PMO ) is thus one of the most knock-down institutions in government, initiating most legislation for parliamentary approval and selecting for appointment by the Crown, besides the aforementioned, the governor general, lieutenant governors, senators, federal court judges, and heads of Crown corporations and government agencies. [ 182 ] The drawing card of the party with the second-most seats normally becomes the leader of the Official Opposition and is partially of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check. [ 186 ]
Each of the 338 members of Parliament in the House of Commons is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or drive. general elections must be called by the governor general, either on the advice of the prime minister or if the politics loses a confidence vote in the House. [ 187 ] [ 188 ] The Constitution Act, 1982 requires that no more than five years pass between elections, although the Canada Elections Act limits this to four years with a pay back election date in October. The 105 members of the Senate, whose seats are apportioned on a regional basis, serve until senesce 75. [ 189 ] canadian federalism divide government responsibilities between the federal government and the ten provinces. provincial legislatures are unicameral and operate in parliamentary manner exchangeable to the House of Commons. [ 183 ] Canada ‘s three territories besides have legislatures, but these are not sovereign and have fewer constitutional responsibilities than the provinces. [ 190 ] The territorial legislatures besides differ structurally from their provincial counterparts. [ 191 ] The Bank of Canada is the central bank of the state. In addition, the minister of finance and minister of invention, skill and industry utilize the Statistics Canada agency for fiscal plan and economic policy development. [ 192 ] The Bank of Canada is the sole assurance authorized to issue currency in the shape of canadian bank notes. [ 193 ] The bank does not issue canadian coins ; they are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint. [ 194 ]


The Constitution of Canada is the sovereign law of the country, and consists of written text and oral conventions. [ 195 ] The Constitution Act, 1867 ( known as the british North America Act anterior to 1982 ), affirmed government based on parliamentary precedent and divided powers between the federal and provincial governments. [ 196 ] The Statute of Westminster 1931 granted full autonomy, and the Constitution Act, 1982 ended all legislative ties to Britain, vitamin a well as adding a constituent amend formula and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [ 197 ] The Charter guarantees basic rights and freedoms that normally can not be over-ridden by any government—though a however article allows Parliament and the provincial legislatures to override certain sections of the Charter for a period of five years. [ 198 ]
Canada ‘s judiciary plays an important role in interpreting laws and has the power to strike down Acts of Parliament that violate the united states constitution. The Supreme Court of Canada is the highest court and final arbiter and has been led since December 18, 2017, by Richard Wagner, the chief justice of Canada. [ 199 ] Its nine members are appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime curate and minister of justice. All judges at the superscript and appellate levels are appointed after consultation with non-governmental legal bodies. The federal Cabinet besides appoints justices to superior courts in the provincial and territorial jurisdictions. [ 200 ] common law prevails everywhere except in Quebec, where civil law predominates. [ 201 ] Criminal law is entirely a federal responsibility and is uniform throughout Canada. [ 202 ] Law enforcement, including criminal courts, is formally a provincial province, conducted by peasant and municipal police forces. [ 203 ] however, in most rural areas and some urban areas, policing responsibilities are contracted to the federal Royal Canadian Mounted Police. [ 204 ] canadian Aboriginal law provides sealed constitutionally recognized rights to kingdom and traditional practices for autochthonal groups in Canada. [ 205 ] Various treaties and font laws were established to mediate relations between Europeans and many Indigenous peoples. [ 206 ] Most notably, a series of football team treaties known as the Numbered Treaties were signed between the Indigenous peoples and the reigning sovereign of Canada between 1871 and 1921. [ 207 ] These treaties are agreements between the canadian Crown-in-Council with the duty to consult and accommodate. [ 208 ] The character of Aboriginal jurisprudence and the rights they support were reaffirmed by section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982. [ 206 ] These rights may include provision of services, such as health care through the amerind Health remove Policy, and exemption from tax income. [ 209 ]

foreign relations and military

Canada is recognized as a middle power for its character in external affairs with a tendency to pursue multilateral solutions. [ 210 ] Canada ‘s extraneous policy based on international peacekeeping and security is carried out through coalitions and external organizations, and through the make of numerous federal institutions. [ 211 ] [ 212 ] Canada ‘s peacekeeping function during the twentieth century has played a major function in its global double. [ 213 ] [ 214 ] The strategy of the canadian government ‘s foreign help policy reflects an emphasis to meet the Millennium Development Goals, while besides providing aid in reaction to extraneous humanitarian crises. [ 215 ] Canada was a initiation penis of the United Nations and has membership in the World Trade Organization, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ). [ 210 ] Canada is besides a extremity of diverse other international and regional organizations and forums for economic and cultural affairs. [ 216 ] Canada acceded to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights in 1976. [ 217 ] Canada joined the Organization of American States ( OAS ) in 1990 and hosted the OAS General Assembly in 2000 and the 3rd peak of the Americas in 2001. [ 218 ] Canada seeks to expand its ties to Pacific Rim economies through membership in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum ( APEC ). [ 219 ] Canada and the United States share the populace ‘s longest assailable border, co-operate on military campaigns and exercises, and are each other ‘s largest trading spouse. [ 220 ] [ 221 ] Canada however has an autonomous alien policy. [ 222 ] For case, it maintains full moon relations with Cuba and declined to participate in the 2003 invasion of Iraq. [ 223 ] Canada maintains historic ties to the United Kingdom and France and to other former british and french colonies through Canada ‘s membership in the Commonwealth of Nations and the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. [ 224 ] Canada is noted for having a positive relationship with the Netherlands, owing, in part, to its contribution to the dutch liberation during World War II. [ 93 ] Canada ‘s strong attachment to the british Empire and Commonwealth led to major participation in british military efforts in the Second Boer War ( 1899–1902 ), World War I ( 1914–1918 ) and World War II ( 1939–1945 ). [ 225 ] Since then, Canada has been an advocate for multilateralism, making efforts to resolve global issues in collaboration with other nations. [ 226 ] [ 227 ] During the Cold War, Canada was a major contributor to UN forces in the Korean War and founded the north american Aerospace Defense Command ( NORAD ) in cooperation with the United States to defend against electric potential forward pass attacks from the Soviet Union. [ 228 ]
During the Suez Crisis of 1956, future prime minister Lester B. Pearson eased tensions by proposing the origin of the United Nations Peacekeeping Force, for which he was awarded the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize. [ 229 ] As this was the first UN peacekeeping mission, Pearson is much credited as the inventor of the concept. [ 230 ] Canada has since served in over 50 peacekeeping missions, including every UN peacekeeping feat until 1989, [ 86 ] and has since maintained forces in external missions in Rwanda, the erstwhile Yugoslavia, and elsewhere ; Canada has sometimes faced controversy over its affair in foreign countries, notably in the 1993 Somalia affair. [ 231 ] In 2001, Canada deployed troops to Afghanistan as share of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-led International Security Assistance Force. [ 232 ] In August 2007, Canada ‘s territorial claims in the Arctic were challenged after a russian submerged expedition to the North Pole ; Canada has considered that area to be autonomous territory since 1925. [ 233 ] In September 2020, Canada joined the COVID-19 Vaccines Global Access ( COVAX ) program, which aims to ensure adequate entree to a potential COVID-19 vaccine for all extremity countries and to help lower-income countries impregnable doses. [ 234 ] The nation employs a professional, volunteer military military unit of approximately 79,000 active personnel and 32,250 military reserve personnel. [ 235 ] The mix canadian Forces ( CF ) comprise the canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, and Royal Canadian Air Force. In 2013, Canada ‘s military expending totalled approximately CA $ 19 billion, or around one percentage of the country ‘s gross domestic product ( GDP ). [ 236 ] [ 237 ] Following the 2016 defense Policy Review, called “ Strong, Secure and Engaged “, the canadian politics announced a 70 percentage increase to the country ‘s defense budget over the following ten. [ 238 ] The canadian Forces will acquire 88 combatant planes and 15 naval come on combatants based on the Type 26 frigate design, the latter as separate of the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy. [ 239 ] [ 240 ] Canada ‘s full military outgo is expected to reach CA $ 32.7 billion by 2027. [ 241 ] Canada ‘s military presently has over 3000 personnel deployed oversea, including in Iraq, Ukraine, and the Caribbean Sea. [ 242 ]

Provinces and territories

Labelled map of Canada detailing its provinces and territories political map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories Canada is a federation composed of ten provinces and three territories. In turn, these may be grouped into four main regions : western Canada, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada ( Eastern Canada refers to Central Canada and Atlantic Canada together ). [ 243 ] Provinces and territories have duty for social programs such as health wish, education, and benefit, [ 244 ] arsenic well as government of judge ( but not criminal law ). together, the provinces collect more gross than the union government, an about alone structure among federations in the worldly concern. Using its spend powers, the federal politics can initiate national policies in provincial areas, such as the Canada Health Act ; the provinces can opt out of these, but rarely do so in commit. equalization payments are made by the federal government to ensure reasonably uniform standards of services and taxation are kept between the richer and poorer provinces. [ 245 ] The major dispute between a canadian state and a territory is that provinces receive their power and authority from the Constitution Act, 1867, whereas territorial governments have powers delegated to them by the Parliament of Canada. [ 246 ] The powers flowing from the Constitution Act, 1867 are divided between the federal government and the peasant governments to exercise entirely. [ 247 ] As the division of powers between the federal politics and the provinces is defined in the fundamental law, any changes require a built-in amendment. The territories being creatures of the federal government, changes to their function and part of powers may be performed unilaterally by the Parliament of Canada. [ 248 ]


[249] The Toronto fiscal district is the second-largest fiscal center in North America, the seventh-largest globally in employment and the heart of Canada ‘s finance industry. Canada is the global ‘s ninth-largest economy as of 2021, with a nominative GDP of approximately US $ 2.015 trillion. [ 250 ] It is one of the least bribe countries in the universe, [ 251 ] and is one of the universe ‘s top ten trade nations, with a highly globalize economy. [ 252 ] [ 253 ] Canada has a assorted economy ranking above the U.S. and most western european nations on The Heritage Foundation ‘s Index of Economic Freedom, [ 254 ] and experiencing a relatively first gear level of income disparity. [ 255 ] The state ‘s modal family disposable income per head is “ well above ” the OECD average. [ 256 ] The Toronto Stock Exchange is the ninth-largest stock central in the worldly concern by commercialize capitalization, listing over 1,500 companies with a combined commercialize capitalization of over US $ 2 trillion. [ 257 ] In 2021, canadian trade in goods and services reached CA $ 2.016 trillion. [ 258 ] Canada ‘s exports totalled over CA $ 637 billion, while its imported goods were worth over CA $ 631 billion, of which approximately CA $ 391 billion originated from the United States, CA $ 216 billion from non-U.S. sources. [ 258 ] In 2018, Canada had a craft deficit in goods of CA $ 22 billion and a trade deficit in services of CA $ 25 billion. [ 258 ] Since the early twentieth hundred, the growth of Canada ‘s fabrication, mine, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy to an urbanize, industrial one. [ 259 ] Like many other develop countries, the canadian economy is dominated by the service industry, which employs about three-quarters of the state ‘s work force. [ 260 ] however, Canada is unusual among evolve countries in the importance of its primary sector, in which the forestry and petroleum industries are two of the most outstanding components. [ 261 ]




Countries and territories with free-trade agreements

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Canada ‘s economic integration with the United States has increased significantly since World War II. [ 262 ] The Automotive Products Trade Agreement of 1965 opened Canada ‘s borders to trade in the automobile manufacture industry. [ 263 ] In the 1970s, concerns over energy autonomy and foreign ownership in the manufacture sectors prompted Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau ‘s big government to enact the National Energy Program ( NEP ) and the Foreign Investment Review Agency ( FIRA ). [ 264 ] In the 1980s, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney ‘s Progressive Conservatives abolished the NEP and changed the name of FIRA to Investment Canada, to encourage foreign investment. [ 265 ] The Canada – United States Free Trade Agreement ( FTA ) of 1988 eliminated tariffs between the two countries, while the north american Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) expanded the free-trade zone to include Mexico in 1994 ( former replaced by the Canada–United States–Mexico Agreement ). [ 266 ] Canada has a hard cooperative bank sector, with the populace ‘s highest per-capita membership in recognition unions. [ 267 ] Canada is one of the few develop nations that are net exporters of energy. [ 261 ] [ 268 ] Atlantic Canada possesses huge offshore deposits of natural gas, and Alberta besides hosts boastfully petroleum and natural gas resources. The enormousness of the Athabasca oil sands and early assets results in Canada having a 13 percentage share of ball-shaped oil reserves, comprising the world ‘s third-largest parcel after Venezuela and Saudi Arabia. [ 269 ] Canada is additionally one of the world ‘s largest suppliers of agrarian products ; the canadian Prairies are one of the most significant ball-shaped producers of wheat, canola oil, and early grains. [ 270 ] The federal Department of Natural Resources provides statistics regarding its major exports ; the country is a leading exporter of zinc, uranium, gold, nickel, platinoids, aluminum, steel, iron ore, coking coal, star, bull, molybdenum, cobalt, and cadmium. [ 271 ] many towns in northerly Canada, where department of agriculture is unmanageable, are sustainable because of nearby mines or sources of timbre. Canada besides has a ample fabrication sector centred in southerly Ontario and Quebec, with automobiles and aeronautics representing peculiarly significant industries. [ 272 ]

science and technology

In 2019, Canada spent approximately CA $ 40.3 billion on domestic research and exploitation, of which over $ 7 billion was provided by the federal and provincial governments. [ 273 ] As of 2020, the state has produced fifteen Nobel laureates in physics, chemistry, and medicine, [ 274 ] and was ranked one-fourth global for scientific research choice in a major 2012 survey of external scientists. [ 275 ] It is furthermore home plate to the headquarters of a number of global engineering firms. [ 276 ] Canada has one of the highest levels of Internet access in the world, with over 33 million users, equivalent to around 94 percentage of its total 2014 population. [ 277 ] Canada was ranked 16th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021 and 17th in 2019 and 2020. [ 278 ] [ 279 ] [ 280 ]
Some of the most luminary scientific developments in Canada include the creation of the modern alkaline battery [ 281 ] and the poliomyelitis vaccine [ 282 ] and discoveries about the interior structure of the nuclear core. [ 283 ] other major canadian scientific contributions include the artificial cardiac pacesetter, mapping the ocular cortex, [ 284 ] [ 285 ] the development of the electron microscope, [ 286 ] [ 287 ] plate tectonics, deep learn, multi-touch engineering and the identification of the first black hole, Cygnus X-1. [ 288 ] Canada has a retentive history of discovery in genetics, which include stem cells, site-directed mutagenesis, T-cell sense organ and the identification of the genes that cause Fanconi anemia, cystic fibrosis and early-onset Alzheimer ‘s disease, among numerous early diseases. [ 285 ] [ 289 ] The canadian Space Agency operates a highly active space program, conducting deep-space, erratic, and aviation research, and developing rockets and satellites. [ 290 ] Canada was the third nation to design and construct a satellite after the Soviet Union and the United States, with the 1962 Alouette 1 launch. [ 291 ] Canada is a participant in the International Space Station ( ISS ), and is a pioneer in space robotics, having constructed the Canadarm, Canadarm2 and Dextre automatic manipulators for the ISS and NASA ‘s Space Shuttle. [ 292 ] Since the 1960s, Canada ‘s aerospace industry has designed and built numerous marques of satellite, including Radarsat-1 and 2, ISIS and MOST. [ 293 ] Canada has besides produced one of the worldly concern ‘s most successful and widely used sounding rockets, the Black Brant ; over 1,000 Black Brants have been launched since the rocket ‘s insertion in 1961. [ 294 ]


Two-colour map of Windsor area with towns along the St. Lawrence river [295] The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populate and heavily industrialize region of Canada and spans 1,200 kilometer ( 750 myocardial infarction ). The 2021 canadian census enumerated a full population of 36,991,981, an increase of around 5.2 percentage over the 2016 design. [ 296 ] Between 2011 and May 2016, Canada ‘s population grew by 1.7 million people, with immigrants accounting for two-thirds of the increase. [ 297 ] Between 1990 and 2008, the population increased by 5.6 million, equivalent to 20.4 percentage overall growth. [ 298 ] The independent drivers of population growth are immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural emergence. [ 299 ] Canada has one of the highest per-capita immigration rates in the global, [ 300 ] driven chiefly by economic policy and besides kin reunion. [ 301 ] [ 302 ] The Canadian public, a well as the major political parties, support the current level of immigration. [ 301 ] [ 303 ] A record issue of 405,000 immigrants were admitted to Canada in 2021. [ 304 ] India, Philippines and China are the top three countries of origin for immigrants moving to Canada. [ 305 ] New immigrants settle largely in major urban areas in the area, such as Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. [ 306 ] Canada besides accepts big numbers of refugees, accounting for over 10 percentage of annual ball-shaped refugee resettlements ; it resettled more than 28,000 in 2018. [ 307 ] [ 308 ] Canada ‘s population density, at 4.2 inhabitants per square kilometer ( 11/sq michigan ), is among the lowest in the populace. [ 296 ] Canada spans latitudinally from the 83rd parallel north to the 41st latitude union, and approximately 95 percentage of the population is found south of the fifty-fifth parallel north. [ 309 ] About four-fifths of the population lives within 150 kilometres ( 93 nautical mile ) of the molding with the contiguous United States. [ 310 ] The most dumbly populate separate of the country, accounting for about 50 percentage, is the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor in Southern Quebec and Southern Ontario along the Great Lakes and the Saint Lawrence River. [ 295 ] [ 309 ] The majority of Canadians ( 67.7 percentage ) live in family households, 28.2 percentage report living alone, and those living with unrelated persons reported at 4.1 percentage. [ 311 ] 6.3 percentage of households are multigenerational with 34.7 percentage of young adults aged 20 to 34 living with their parents. [ 311 ] 69.0 percentage of households own their dwellings with 58.6 percentage of those homes having an ongoing mortgage. [ 312 ]


Healthcare in Canada is delivered through the provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health caution, colloquially called Medicare. [ 313 ] [ 314 ] It is guided by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984, [ 315 ] and is universal. [ 316 ] Universal access to publicly funded health services “ is much considered by Canadians as a fundamental respect that ensures national health care insurance for everyone wherever they live in the country. ” [ 317 ] however, 30 percentage of Canadians ‘ healthcare is paid for through the private sector. [ 318 ] This by and large goes towards services not covered or partially covered by Medicare, such as prescription drugs, dentistry and optometry. [ 318 ] approximately 65 to 75 percentage of Canadians have some form of supplementary health policy related to the aforesaid reasons ; many receive it through their employers or use secondary social serve programs related to extended coverage for families receiving social aid or vulnerable demographics, such as seniors, minors, and those with disabilities. [ 319 ] [ 318 ]
graph of expenditures as described in caption Health manage monetary value rise based on sum consumption on health as percentage of GDP. Countries shown are the United States, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Canada. In coarse with many other develop countries, Canada is experiencing a cost increase due to a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working old age. In 2006, the modal senesce was 39.5 years ; [ 320 ] within twelve years it had risen to 42.4 years, [ 321 ] with a life anticipation of 81.1 years. [ 322 ] A 2016 report by the chief populace health officeholder found that 88 percentage of Canadians, one of the highest proportions of the population among G7 countries, indicated that they “ had good or very good health ”. [ 323 ] 80 percentage of canadian adults self-report having at least one major hazard factor for chronic disease : smoke, physical inactiveness, unhealthy eat or excessive alcohol consumption. [ 324 ] Canada has one of the highest rates of adult fleshiness among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ( OECD ) countries attributing to approximately 2.7 million cases of diabetes ( types 1 and 2 combined ). [ 324 ] Four chronic diseases— cancer ( leading campaign of death ), cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases and diabetes—account for 65 percentage of deaths in Canada. [ 325 ] [ 326 ] In 2017, the Canadian Institute for Health Information reported that healthcare spend reached $ 242 billion, or 11.5 percentage of Canada ‘s GDP for that year. [ 327 ] Canada ‘s per-capita spend ranks as seventh on the tilt of countries by total health outgo per caput in the OECD and above the average of 8.8 percentage of GDP. [ 328 ] Canada has performed close to, or above the modal on the majority of OECD health indicators since the early 2000s. [ 329 ] In 2017 Canada ranked above the average on OECD indicators for wait-times and entree to care, with average scores for quality of worry and use of resources. [ 330 ] A comprehensive survey from 2017 of the crown 11 countries ranked Canada ‘s health care system third-to-last. [ 331 ] Identified weaknesses of Canada ‘s system were relatively higher baby deathrate rate, the prevalence of chronic conditions, long wait times, hapless handiness of after-hours worry, and a lack of prescription drugs and alveolar consonant coverage. [ 331 ]


education in Canada is for the most part provided publicly, funded and oversee by federal, provincial, and local governments. [ 332 ] education is within provincial jurisdiction and the course of study is oversee by the province. [ 333 ] education in Canada is generally divided into primary coil education, followed by secondary department of education and post-secondary. education in both English and French is available in most places across Canada. [ 334 ] canadian provinces and territories are responsible for education planning. [ 335 ] Canada has a big count of Universities, about all of which are publicly funded. [ 336 ] Established in 1663, Université Laval is the oldest post-secondary mental hospital in Canada. [ 337 ] The largest university is the University of Toronto with over 85,000 students. [ 338 ] Four universities are regularly ranked among the top 100 worldwide, namely University of Toronto, University of British Columbia, McGill University and McMaster University, with a sum of 18 universities ranked in the peak 500 global. [ 339 ] According to a 2019 report by the OECD, Canada is one of the most educate countries in the worldly concern ; [ 340 ] the nation ranks beginning cosmopolitan in the number of adults having tertiary education, with over 56 percentage of canadian adults having attained at least an undergraduate college or university academic degree. [ 340 ] Canada spends about 5.3 percentage of its GDP on education. [ 341 ] The area invests heavily in tertiary education ( more than US $ 20,000 per student ). [ 342 ] As of 2014, 89 percentage of adults aged 25 to 64 have earned the equivalent of a high-school degree, compared to an OECD average of 75 percentage. [ 343 ] The mandatary education long time ranges between 5–7 to 16–18 years, [ 344 ] contributing to an adult literacy rate of 99 percentage. [ 321 ] Just over 60,000 children are homeschooled as of 2016. In 2002, 43 percentage of Canadians aged 25 to 64 possessed a post-secondary education ; for those aged 25 to 34, the pace of post-secondary education reached 51 percentage. [ 345 ] The Programme for International Student Assessment indicates canadian students perform well above the OECD average, particularly in mathematics, science, and interpretation, [ 346 ] [ 347 ] ranking the overall cognition and skills of canadian 15-year-olds as the sixth-best in the worldly concern. Canada is a well-performing OECD area in reading literacy, mathematics, and science with the average student scoring 523.7, compared with the OECD average of 493 in 2015. [ 348 ] [ 349 ]


According to the 2016 canadian Census, the state ‘s largest self-reported cultural origin is canadian ( accounting for 32 percentage of the population ), [ bel ] followed by English ( 18.3 percentage ), Scottish ( 13.9 percentage ), French ( 13.6 percentage ), Irish ( 13.4 percentage ), German ( 9.6 percentage ), Chinese ( 5.1 percentage ), italian ( 4.6 percentage ), First Nations ( 4.4 percentage ), indian ( 4.0 percentage ), and Ukrainian ( 3.9 percentage ). [ 353 ] There are 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands, encompassing a sum of 1,525,565 people. [ 354 ] The autochthonal population in Canada is growing at about twice the national pace, and four percentage of Canada ‘s population claimed an autochthonal identity in 2006. Another 22.3 percentage of the population belonged to a non-Indigenous visible minority. [ 355 ] In 2016, the largest visible minority groups were South Asian ( 5.6 percentage ), Chinese ( 5.1 percentage ) and Black ( 3.5 percentage ). [ 355 ] Between 2011 and 2016, the visible minority population rose by 18.4 percentage. [ 355 ] In 1961, less than two percentage of Canada ‘s population ( about 300,000 people ) were members of visible minority groups. [ 356 ] Indigenous peoples are not considered a visible minority in Statistics Canada calculations. [ 357 ]


Map of Canada with English speakers and French speakers at a percentage [358]


English – 56.9 %


English and French – 16.1 %


french – 21.3 %


sparsely populated area ( < 0.4 persons per km2 ) approximately 98 percentage of Canadians can speak either or both English and french : A multitude of languages are used by Canadians, with English and French ( the official languages ) being the mother tongues of approximately 56 percentage and 21 percentage of Canadians, respectively. [ 359 ] As of the 2016 Census, merely over 7.3 million Canadians listed a non-official terminology as their beget tongue. Some of the most common non-official inaugural languages include Chinese ( 1,227,680 first-language speakers ), Punjabi ( 501,680 ), spanish ( 458,850 ), Tagalog ( 431,385 ), Arabic ( 419,895 ), German ( 384,040 ), and Italian ( 375,645 ). [ 359 ] Canada 's union government practises official bilingualism, which is applied by the commissioner of official languages in consonance with incision 16 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the federal Official Languages Act. English and french have adequate status in federal courts, Parliament, and in all federal institutions. Citizens have the right, where there is sufficient demand, to receive federal government services in either English or french and official- language minorities are guaranteed their own schools in all provinces and territories. [ 360 ] The 1977 Charter of the French Language established french as the official language of Quebec. [ 361 ] Although more than 85 percentage of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec, there are substantial Francophone populations in New Brunswick, Alberta, and Manitoba ; Ontario has the largest french-speaking population outside Quebec. [ 362 ] New Brunswick, the only officially bilingual province, has a french-speaking acadian minority constituting 33 percentage of the population. [ 363 ] There are besides clusters of Acadians in southwestern Nova Scotia, on Cape Breton Island, and through cardinal and western Prince Edward Island. [ 364 ] other provinces have no official languages as such, but French is used as a language of direction, in courts, and for other government services, in accession to English. Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec admit for both English and french to be spoken in the peasant legislatures, and laws are enacted in both languages. In Ontario, French has some legal condition, but is not fully co-official. [ 365 ] There are 11 autochthonal lyric groups, composed of more than 65 clear-cut languages and dialects. [ 366 ] Several Indigenous languages have official status in the Northwest Territories. [ 367 ] Inuktitut is the majority language in Nunavut, and is one of three official languages in the territory. [ 368 ] additionally, Canada is home to many sign languages, some of which are Indigenous. [ 369 ] american Sign Language ( ASL ) is spoken across the state due to the prevalence of ASL in elementary and secondary coil schools. [ 370 ] Due to its historical relation back to the francophone culture, Quebec Sign Language ( LSQ ) is spoken primarily in Quebec, although there are ample Francophone communities in New Brunswick, Ontario and Manitoba. [ 371 ]


Canada is religiously divers, encompassing a wide-eyed stove of beliefs and customs. Canada has no official church, and the government is formally committed to religious pluralism. [ 372 ] Freedom of religion in Canada is a constitutionally protected right, allowing individuals to assemble and worship without limitation or hindrance. [ 373 ] The practice of religion is broadly considered a private matter throughout society and the state. [ 374 ] With Christianity in decline after having once been cardinal and integral to canadian culture and daily life sentence, [ 375 ] Canada has become a post-Christian, laic state of matter. [ 376 ] [ 377 ] [ 378 ] [ 379 ] The majority of Canadians consider religion to be insignificant in their daily lives, [ 380 ] but distillery believe in God. [ 381 ] According to the 2011 National Household Survey, 67.3 percentage of Canadians identify as Christian ; of these, Roman Catholics make up the largest group, accounting for 38.7 percentage of the population. a lot of the remainder is made up of Protestants, who accounted for approximately 27 percentage in a 2011 view. [ 382 ] [ 383 ] The largest protestant church denomination is the United Church of Canada ( accounting for 6.1 percentage of Canadians ), followed by the Anglican Church of Canada ( 5.0 percentage ), and assorted Baptist sects ( 1.9 percentage ). [ 384 ] Secularization has been growing since the 1960s. [ 385 ] [ 386 ] In 2011, 23.9 percentage declared no religious affiliation, compared to 16.5 percentage in 2001. [ 387 ] Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Canada, constituting 3.2 percentage of its population. It is besides the fastest growing religion in Canada. [ 388 ] 1.5 percentage of the canadian population is Hindu and 1.4 percentage is Sikh. [ 384 ]


Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli, in by Francesco Pirelli, in Toronto Canada ‘s culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a “ fair society “ are constitutionally protected. [ 389 ] [ 390 ] [ 391 ] Canada has placed emphasis on equality and inclusiveness for all its people. [ 392 ] Multiculturalism is frequently cited as one of Canada ‘s significant accomplishments, [ 393 ] and a key distinguishing chemical element of canadian identity. [ 394 ] [ 395 ] In Quebec, cultural identity is potent, and there is a french canadian culture that is discrete from english canadian culture. [ 396 ] however, as a whole, Canada is, in theory, a cultural mosaic —a collection of regional cultural subcultures. [ 397 ] Canada ‘s approach to governance emphasizing multiculturalism, which is based on selective immigration, sociable integration, and suppression of reactionary politics, has wide public digest. [ 398 ] Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher tax income to redistribute wealth, the outlaw of capital punishment, potent efforts to eliminate poverty, hard-and-fast accelerator operate —alongside legislation with a social free position toward women ‘s rights ( like pregnancy termination ), LGBTQ rights, assisted euthanasia and cannabis use —are indicators of Canada ‘s political and cultural values. [ 399 ] [ 400 ] [ 401 ] Canadians besides identify with the country ‘s foreign aid policies, peacekeeping roles, the National park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. [ 402 ] [ 403 ] historically, Canada has been influenced by British, French, and Indigenous cultures and traditions. Through their terminology, art and music, Indigenous peoples continue to influence the Canadian identity. [ 404 ] During the twentieth century, Canadians with African, Caribbean and asian nationalities have added to the Canadian identity and its culture. [ 405 ] Canadian wit is an integral part of the Canadian identity and is reflected in its folklore, literature, music, artwork, and media. The primary coil characteristics of canadian humour are irony, parody, and sarcasm. [ 406 ]


Themes of nature, pioneers, trappers, and traders played an important function in the early growth of canadian symbolism. [ 408 ] Modern symbols emphasize the state ‘s geography, cold climate, lifestyles and the Canadianization of traditional european and autochthonal symbols. [ 409 ] The consumption of the maple leaf as a canadian symbol dates to the early on eighteenth century. The maple leaf is depicted on Canada ‘s current and former flags, and on the Arms of Canada. [ 410 ] Canada ‘s official tartan, known as the “ maple flick tartan “, has four color that reflect the coloring material of the maple flick as it changes through the seasons—green in the spring, gold in the early fall, red at the beginning frost, and brown university after falling. [ 411 ] The Arms of Canada are close modelled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with French and classifiable canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the british version. [ 412 ] other big symbols include the national motto “ A Mari Usque Ad Mare “ ( “ From Sea to Sea ” ), [ 413 ] the sports of ice ice hockey and lacrosse, the beaver, Canada goose, common addle-head, canadian horse, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the canadian Rockies, [ 410 ] and more recently the totem pole and Inuksuk. [ 414 ] Material items such as canadian beer, maple syrup, tuques, canoes, nanaimo bars, butter tarts and the Quebec serve of poutine are defined as uniquely canadian. [ 414 ] [ 415 ] canadian coins feature many of these symbols : the loon on the $ 1 mint, the Arms of Canada on the 50¢ piece, the beaver on the nickel. [ 416 ] The penny, removed from circulation in 2013, featured the maple leaf. [ 417 ] The Queen ‘s effigy appears on $ 20 bank notes, and on the obverse of all current canadian coins. [ 416 ]


canadian literature is much divided into French- and English-language literatures, which are rooted in the literary traditions of France and Britain, respectively. [ 418 ] The earliest canadian narratives were of travel and exploration. [ 419 ] This progressed into three major themes that can be found within historical canadian literature : nature, frontier life, Canada ‘s position within the world, all three of which tie into the garrison brain. [ 420 ] In late decades, Canada ‘s literature has been strongly influenced by immigrants from around the world. [ 421 ] Since the 1980s, Canada ‘s cultural and cultural diversity has been openly reflected in its literature. [ 422 ] By the 1990s, canadian literature was viewed as some of the global ‘s best. [ 422 ] numerous canadian authors have accumulated international literary awards, [ 423 ] including novelist, poet, and literary critic Margaret Atwood, who received two Booker Prizes ; [ 424 ] Nobel laureate Alice Munro, who has been called the best survive writer of short stories in English ; [ 425 ] and Booker Prize recipient Michael Ondaatje, who wrote the novel The English Patient, which was adapted as a film of the same name that won the Academy Award for Best Picture. [ 426 ] L. M. Montgomery produced a series of children ‘s novels beginning in 1908 with Anne of Green Gables. [ 427 ]


Canada ‘s media is highly autonomous, uncensored, divers and very regionalized. [ 428 ] The Broadcasting Act declares “ the system should serve to safeguard, enrich and strengthen the cultural, political, social and economic framework of Canada ”. [ 429 ] Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output—particularly in English films, television shows, and magazines —is much overshadowed by imports from the United States. [ 430 ] As a resultant role, the conservation of a distinctly canadian culture is supported by federal politics programs, laws, and institutions such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation ( CBC ), the National Film Board of Canada ( NFB ), and the canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission ( CRTC ). [ 431 ] canadian mass media, both print and digital and in both official languages, is largely dominated by a “ handful of major media corporations “. [ 432 ] The largest of these corporations is the country ‘s home public broadcaster, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, which besides plays a significant role in producing domestic cultural contentedness, operating its own radio receiver and television networks in both English and French. [ 433 ] In accession to the CBC, some provincial governments offer their own public educational television receiver broadcast services a well, such as TVOntario and Télé-Québec. [ 434 ] Non-news media content in Canada, including film and television receiver, is influenced both by local creators vitamin a well as by imports from the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and France. [ 435 ] In an effort to reduce the measure of foreign-made media, government interventions in television broadcast can include both regulation of content and public finance. [ 436 ] Canadian tax laws limit foreign contest in magazine advertise. [ 437 ]

ocular arts

art in Canada is marked by thousands of years of inhabitancy by its autochthonal peoples. [ 438 ] Historically, the Catholic Church was the primary coil patron of art in New France and early Canada, particularly Quebec, [ 439 ] and in late times, artists have combined british, french, autochthonal and american artistic traditions, at times embracing european styles while working to promote patriotism. [ 440 ] The nature of canadian artwork reflects these divers origins, as artists have taken their traditions and adapted these influences to reflect the reality of their lives in Canada. [ 441 ] The canadian government has played a function in the development of canadian culture through the department of Canadian Heritage, by giving grants to art galleries, [ 442 ] vitamin a well as establishing and funding art schools and colleges across the nation, and through the Canada Council for the Arts ( established in 1957 ), the national populace arts funder, helping artists, art galleries and periodicals, and therefore contributing to the development of Canada ‘s cultural works. [ 443 ] Since the 1950s, works of Inuit art have been given as gifts to foreign dignitaries by the canadian government. [ 444 ] canadian ocular art has been dominated by figures such as painter Tom Thomson and by the Group of Seven. [ 445 ] The Group of Seven were painters with a chauvinistic and ideal focus, who first exhibited their distinctive works in May 1920. Though mention to as having seven members, five artists— Lawren Harris, A. Y. Jackson, Arthur Lismer, J. E. H. MacDonald, and Frederick Varley —were creditworthy for articulating the group ‘s ideas. They were joined concisely by Frank Johnston and by commercial artist Franklin Carmichael. A. J. Casson became part of the group in 1926. [ 446 ] Associated with the group was another outstanding canadian artist, Emily Carr, known for her landscapes and portrayals of the Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. [ 447 ]


canadian music reflects a variety of regional scenes. [ 448 ] Canada has developed a huge music infrastructure that includes church halls, chamber halls, conservatories, academies, performing arts centres, record companies, radio stations and television music video channels. [ 449 ] Government support programs, such as the Canada Music Fund, assist a wide compass of musicians and entrepreneurs who create, produce and market original and diverse canadian music. [ 450 ] The canadian music diligence is the sixth-largest in the world, producing internationally celebrated composers, musicians and ensembles. [ 451 ] Music air in the area is regulated by the CRTC. [ 452 ] The Canadian Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences presents Canada ‘s music industry awards, the Juno Awards, which were first awarded in 1970. [ 453 ] The Canadian Music Hall of Fame, established in 1976, honours canadian musicians for their life achievements. [ 454 ] patriotic music in Canada dates back over 200 years as a distinct class from british patriotism, preceding canadian Confederation by over 50 years. The earliest solve of patriotic music in Canada, “ The Bold Canadian “, was written in 1812. [ 455 ] “ The Maple Leaf Forever “ written in 1866, was a popular patriotic song throughout English Canada and for many years served as an unofficial national anthem. [ 456 ] The official national anthem, “ O Canada “, was originally commissioned by the deputy governor of Quebec, Théodore Robitaille, for the 1880 St. Jean-Baptiste Day ceremony and was formally adopted in 1980. [ 457 ] Calixa Lavallée wrote the music, which was a fix of a patriotic poem composed by the poet and judge Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier. The textbook was in the first place entirely in french before it was adapted into English in 1906. [ 458 ]


The roots of organized sports in Canada date back to the 1770s, [ 459 ] culminate in the development and popularization of the major professional games of internal-combustion engine field hockey, lacrosse, curling, basketball, baseball, association football and canadian football. [ 460 ] Canada ‘s official national sports are ice ice hockey and lacrosse. [ 461 ] other sports such as golf, volleyball, skiing, bicycle, float, badminton, tennis, bowl and the learn of martial arts are all widely enjoyed at the youth and amateur levels. [ 462 ] Great achievements in canadian sports are recognized by Canada ‘s Sports Hall of Fame, [ 463 ] while the Lou Marsh Trophy is awarded annually to Canada ‘s acme athlete by a control panel of journalists. [ 464 ] There are numerous other sport “ halls of fame ” in Canada, such as the Hockey Hall of Fame. [ 463 ] Canada shares several major professional sports leagues with the United States. [ 465 ] canadian teams in these leagues include seven franchises in the National Hockey League, adenine good as three Major League Soccer teams and one team in each of Major League Baseball and the National Basketball Association. other democratic professional competitions include the canadian Football League, National Lacrosse League, the Canadian Premier League, and the versatile curling tournaments sanctioned and organized by Curling Canada, [ 466 ] such as Tim Hortons Brier and Scotties Tournament of Hearts. Canada has enjoyed success both at the Winter Olympics and at the Summer Olympics, [ 467 ] though particularly the Winter Games as a “ winter sports nation ”, and has hosted several high-profile external sporting events such as the 1976 Summer Olympics, [ 468 ] the 1988 Winter Olympics, [ 469 ] the 2010 Winter Olympics [ 470 ] [ 471 ] and the 2015 FIFA Women ‘s World Cup. [ 472 ] Most recently, Canada hosted the 2015 Pan American Games and 2015 Parapan american Games in Toronto, the former being one of the largest sport event hosted by the area. [ 473 ] The country is scheduled to co-host the 2026 FIFA World Cup alongside Mexico and the United States. [ 474 ]

See besides


  1. ^[163][164] “The traditional brokerage model of Canadian politics leaves little room for ideology”[165][166][167][168] “ brokerage politics : A canadian term for successful large tent parties that embody a pluralistic catch-all approach to appeal to the medial canadian voter … adopting centrist policies and electoral coalitions to satisfy the short-run preferences of a majority of electors who are not located on the ideological fringe. “ “ The traditionalmodel of canadian politics leaves short room for ideology ”
  2. ^[350] “The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern part of the country that was first settled. Respondents generally are visibly European (Anglophones and Francophones), however no-longer self-identify with their ethnic ancestral origins. This response is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral lineage.[351][352] All citizens of Canada are classified as “ Canadians ” as defined by Canada ‘s nationality laws. however, “ canadian ” as an cultural group has since 1996 been added to census questionnaires for potential ancestral origin or descent. “ canadian ” was included as an exemplar on the English questionnaire and “ Canadien ” as an exercise on the french questionnaire. “ The majority of respondents to this selection are from the eastern share of the state that was first base settled. Respondents broadly are visibly european ( Anglophones and Francophones ), however no-longer self-identify with their heathen ancestral origins. This reception is attributed to a multitude or generational distance from ancestral linage .


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