Radiofrequency (RF) Radiation
radiation sickness is the emission ( sending out ) of energy from any reference. X-rays are an exercise of radiation, but so is the light that comes from the sun and the heating system that is constantly coming off our bodies .
When talking about radiation and cancer, many people think of specific kinds of radiation such as x-rays or the radiation made by nuclear reactors. But there are other types of radiation sickness that act differently.
Reading: Radiofrequency (RF) Radiation
radiation exists across a spectrum from identical low-energy ( low-frequency ) radiation to very high-energy ( high-frequency ) radiation sickness. This is sometimes referred to as the electromagnetic spectrum .
The electromagnetic spectrum example below shows all of the potential frequencies of electromagnetic energy. It ranges from highly low frequencies ( such as those from office lines ) to highly high frequencies ( x-rays and gamma rays ), and includes both non-ionizing and ionize radiation .
Examples of high-octane radiotherapy include x-rays and gamma rays. These rays, arsenic well as some higher energy UV radiation, are forms of ionizing radiation, which means they have enough energy to remove an electron from ( ionize ) an atom. This can damage the deoxyribonucleic acid ( genes ) inside of cells, which can sometimes result in cancer .
picture credit : National Cancer Institute
What is radiofrequency (RF) radiation?
Radiofrequency ( RF ) radiation, which includes radio waves and microwaves, is at the low-energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is a type of non-ionizing radiation. Non-ionizing radiation sickness does not have enough energy to remove electrons from an atom. visible light is another type of non-ionizing radiation sickness. RF radiation sickness has lower energy than some other types of non-ionizing radiation, like visible light and infrared, but it has higher energy than extremely low-frequency ( ELF ) radiation .
If RF radiation is absorbed by the consistency in large adequate amounts, it can produce heat. This can lead to burns and body tissue damage. Although RF radiation is not thought to cause cancer by damaging the deoxyribonucleic acid in cells the means ionizing radiation does, there has been business that in some circumstances, some forms of non-ionizing radiation sickness might still have other effects on cells that might somehow result in cancer .
How are people exposed to RF radiation?
People can be exposed to RF radiation from both natural and man-made sources .
natural sources include :
- Outer space and the sun
- The sky – including lightning strikes
- The earth itself – most radiation from the earth is infrared, but a tiny fraction is RF
man-made RF radiation sources include :
- Broadcasting radio and television signals
- Transmitting signals from cordless telephones, cell phones and cell phone towers, satellite phones, and 2-way radios
- WiFi, Bluetooth® devices, and smart meters
- The heating of body tissues to destroy them in medical procedures
- “Welding” pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using certain machines
- Millimeter wave scanners (a type of full body scanner used for security screening)
Some people can have significant RF exposure as part of their jobs. This includes people who maintain antenna towers that circulate communication signals and people who use or maintain radar equipment .
Most people are exposed to much lower levels of man-made RF radiation every day due to the presence of RF signals all around us. They come from radio and television receiver broadcasts, WiFi and Bluetooth devices, cell phones ( and cell telephone towers ), and early sources .
Some common uses of RF radiation
Microwave ovens work by using very senior high school levels of a certain frequency of RF radiation sickness ( in the microwave spectrum ) to heat foods. When food absorb microwaves, it causes the urine molecules in the food to resonate, which produces estrus. Microwaves do not use x-rays or gamma rays, and they do not make food radioactive .
Microwave ovens are designed so that the microwaves are contained within the oven itself. The oven only makes microwaves when the door is shut and the oven is turned on. When microwave ovens are used according to instructions, there is no evidence that they pose a health risk to people. In the US, federal standards limit the measure of RF radiation that can leak from a microwave oven to a level far below what would harm people. Ovens that are damaged or modified, however, could allow microwaves to leak out, and thus could pose a gamble to people nearby by potentially causing burns .
Full-body security scanners
In many airports in the United States, the Transportation Security Administration ( TSA ) uses wide body scanners to screen passengers. The scanners presently used by the TSA manipulation millimeter wave imaging. These scanners send out a little come of millimeter wave radiation ( a type of RF radiation ) toward the person in the scanner. The RF radiation passes through dress and bounces off the person ’ randomness skin, vitamin a well as any objects under the clothes. Receivers sense the radiation and create an image of the delineate of the person .
Millimeter roll scanners do not use x-rays ( or any early kind of high-energy radiation ), and the come of RF radiotherapy used is identical low. According to the US Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ), these scanners have no known health effects. however, TSA often allows people to be screened in a different way if they object to screening with these scanners.
Cell phones and cell phone towers
Cell phones and cell phone towers ( foundation stations ) use rutherfordium radiation sickness to transmit and receive signals. Some concerns have been raised that these signals might increase the risk of cancer, and inquiry in this area continues. For more information, see cellular Phones and Cell Phone Towers .
Does RF radiation cause cancer?
Researchers use 2 main types of studies to try to determine if something might cause cancer :
- Studies done in the lab studies
- Studies looking at groups of people
frequently neither type of study provides enough tell on its own, so researchers normally look at both lab-based and human studies when trying to figure out if something causes cancer .
The follow is a brief compendious of some of the major studies that have looked at this return to date. however, this is not a comprehensive review of all studies that have been done .
Studies done in the lab
RF waves preceptor ’ thyroxine have enough energy to damage DNA immediately. Because of this, it ’ s not clear how RF radiotherapy might be able to cause cancer. Some studies have found possible increase rates of certain types of tumors in lab animals exposed to RF radiation, but overall, the results of these types of studies have not provided clear answers sol far .
A few studies have reported evidence of biological effects that could be linked to cancer, but this is placid an area of research .
In big studies published in 2018 by the US National Toxicology Program ( NTP ) and by the Ramazzini Institute in Italy, researchers exposed groups of lab rats ( adenine well as mice, in the case of the NTP survey ) to RF waves over their entire bodies for many hours a day, starting before parturition and continuing for at least most of their natural lives. Both studies found an increased hazard of uncommon heart tumors called malignant schwannomas in male rats, but not in female rats ( nor in male or female mouse, in the NTP report ). The NTP study besides reported possible increased risks of certain types of tumors in the brain and in the adrenal gland glands .
While both of these studies had strengths, they besides had limitations that make it hard to know how they might apply to humans being exposed to RF radiotherapy. A 2019 review of these two studies by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection ( ICNIRP ) determined that the limitations of the studies didn ’ thymine allow conclusions to be drawn regarding the ability of RF energy to cause cancer .
however, the results of these studies do not rule out the possibility that RF radiation might somehow be able to impact human health .
Studies in people
Studies of people who may have been exposed to RF radiation at their jobs ( such as people who work around or with radar equipment, those who service communication antenna, and radio operators ) have found no open increase in cancer hazard .
A number of studies have looked for a possible radio link between cell phones and cancer. Although some studies have shown a potential liaison, many others have not. For many reasons, it is hard to study if there might be a link between cell phones and cancer, including the relatively curtly time that cellular telephone phones have been in far-flung practice, changes in the technology over time, and trouble in estimating each person ’ randomness exposure. The topic of cell phones and cancer risk is discussed in detail in Cellular ( Cell ) Phones .
What do expert agencies say?
The American Cancer Society (ACS) does not have any official position or statement on whether or not radiofrequency radiation from cell phones, cell phones towers, or other sources is a cause of cancer. ACS by and large looks to other adept organizations to determine if something causes cancer ( that is, if it is a carcinogen ), including :
- The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO)
- The US National Toxicology Program (NTP), which is formed from parts of several different government agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
other major organizations might besides comment on the ability of certain exposures to cause cancer .
Based on a inspection of studies published up until 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RF radiation as “ possibly carcinogenic to humans, ” based on limited attest of a possible increase in risk for genius tumors among cell earphone users, and inadequate evidence for other types of cancer. ( For more data on the IARC classification system, see Known and Probable Human Carcinogens. )
More recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a technical reputation based on results of studies published between 2008 and 2018, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as home trends in cancer rates. The report concluded : “ Based on the studies that are described in detail in this report, there is insufficient tell to support a causal association between radiofrequency radiation ( RFR ) exposure and [ tumor formation ]. ”
sol far, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not included RF radiotherapy in its Report on Carcinogens, which lists exposures that are known to be or sanely anticipated to be homo carcinogens. ( For more on this report, see Known and Probable Human Carcinogens. )
According to the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) :
“ [ C ] urrently no scientific evidence establishes a causal radio link between radio receiver device use and cancer or other illnesses. Those evaluating the potential risks of using wireless devices agree that more and longer-term studies should explore whether there is a better footing for RF safety standards than is presently used. ”
How can I avoid exposure to RF radiation?
Because sources of RF radiation are so common in the modern earth, there is no way to wholly avoid exposure to it. There are some ways you can lower your vulnerability to RF radiotherapy, such as :
- Avoiding jobs with increased RF exposure
- Limiting the time you spend near appliances, equipment, and other devices (such as WiFi routers) that give off RF radiation
- Limiting the time you spend with a cell (mobile) phone placed against your ear (or close to another part of your body)
still, it isn ’ t clear that doing these things will be helpful in terms of health risks .