China – Wikipedia

nation in East Asia
“ People ‘s Republic of China ” redirects here. For the Republic of China, see Taiwan
China ( chinese : 中国 ; pinyin : Zhōngguó ), officially the People’s Republic of China ( PRC ; chinese : 中华人民共和国 ; pinyin : Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ), is a state in East Asia. It is the populace ‘s most populous country, with a population of more than 1.4 billion. China spans five geographic meter zones and borders 14 countries, the second most of any country in the earth after Russia. Covering an sphere of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers ( 3,700,000 sq nautical mile ), it is the worldly concern ‘s third or fourth largest country. [ iodine ] The state consists of 23 provinces, [ joule ] five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two particular administrative Regions ( Hong Kong and Macau ). The national capital is Beijing.

China emerged as one of the universe ‘s first civilizations in the prolific basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. China was one of the populace ‘s foremost economic powers for most of the two millennium from the 1st until the nineteenth century. For millennium, China ‘s political system was based on absolute familial monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in the twenty-first hundred BCE. Since then, China has expanded, fractured, and re-unified numerous times. In the third century BCE, the Qin reunited core China and established the first chinese empire. The succeeding Han dynasty ( 206 BCE – 220 CE ) saw some of the most advance engineering at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and aesculapian improvements. The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty ( 618–907 ) and Northern Song Dynasty ( 960–1127 ) completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture dispersed widely in Asia, as the new Silk Road brought traders to a far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa. The Qing dynasty, China ‘s last dynasty, which formed the territorial basis for advanced China, suffered big losses to foreign imperialism in the nineteenth hundred. The Chinese monarchy collapsed in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution, when the Republic of China ( ROC ) replaced the Qing dynasty. China was invaded by the Empire of Japan during World War II. The Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949 when the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ) established the People ‘s Republic of China on the mainland while the Kuomintang -led ROC government retreated to the island of Taiwan. [ thousand ] Both claim to be the sole legitimate government of China, although the United Nations has recognized the PRC as the sole representation since 1971. China conducted a series of economic reforms since 1978, and entered into the World Trade Organization in 2001. China is presently governed as a unitary one-party socialist republic by the CCP. China is a permanent wave member of the United Nations Security Council and a establish member of several multilateral and regional cooperation organizations such as the asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Silk Road Fund, the New Development Bank, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, and the RCEP, and is a member of the BRICS, the G8+5, the G20, the APEC, and the East Asia Summit. It ranks among the lowest in external measurements of civil liberties, government transparency, exemption of the press, exemption of religion and cultural minorities. chinese authorities have been criticized by political dissidents and human rights activists for far-flung human rights abuses, including political repression, aggregate censoring, mass surveillance of their citizens and violent inhibition of protests. China is the world ‘s largest economy by GDP at purchasing power parity, second-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the world ‘s moment affluent country by sum wealth. The country has the fastest growing major economy and is the world ‘s largest manufacturer and exporter. China is a recognized nuclear-weapon department of state with the world ‘s largest standing army by military personnel and second-largest defense budget .


China (today’s Mangi (inland of Xanton), and Cataio (inland of China and Chequan, and including the capital Cambalu, Xandu, and a ( today ‘s Guangdong ), ( inland of ), and ( inland ofand, and including the capital, and a marble bridge ) are all shown as divide regions on this 1570 map by Abraham Ortelius The word “ China ” has been used in English since the sixteenth century ; however, it was not a word used by the chinese themselves during this period. Its origin has been traced through Portuguese, Malay, and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Chīna, used in ancient India. [ 19 ] “ China ” appears in Richard Eden ‘s 1555 transformation [ l ] of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese internet explorer Duarte Barbosa. [ molarity ] [ 19 ] Barbosa ‘s custom was derived from persian Chīn ( چین ), which was in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna ( चीन ). [ 24 ] Cīna was beginning used in early Hindu bible, including the Mahābhārata ( fifth hundred BCE ) and the Laws of Manu ( second hundred BCE ). [ 25 ] In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived ultimately from the name of the Qin dynasty ( 221–206 BCE ). [ 26 ] [ 25 ] Although custom in amerind sources precedes this dynasty, this derivation is still given in respective sources. [ 27 ] The origin of the Sanskrit news is a matter of argue, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. [ 19 ] alternative suggestions include the names for Yelang and the Jing or Chu state. [ 25 ] [ 28 ] The official name of the modern state is the “ People ‘s Republic of China ” ( simplified Chinese : 中华人民共和国 ; traditional chinese : 中華人民共和國 ; pinyin : Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó ). The shorter phase is “ China ” Zhōngguó ( 中国 ; 中國 ) from zhōng ( “ cardinal ” ) and guó ( “ express ” ), [ n ] a term which developed under the western Zhou dynasty in mention to its imperial domain. [ o ] [ phosphorus ] It was then applied to the sphere around Luoyi ( contemporary Luoyang ) during the Eastern Zhou and then to China ‘s Central Plain before being used as an casual synonym for the state of matter under the Qing. [ 30 ] It was frequently used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived “ barbarians ”. [ 30 ] The name Zhongguo is besides translated as “ Middle Kingdom ” in English. [ 33 ] China ( PRC ) is sometimes referred to as the Mainland when distinguishing the ROC from the PRC. [ 34 ] [ 35 ] [ 36 ] [ 37 ]



archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China 2.25 million years ago. [ 38 ] The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, [ 39 ] were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing ; they have been dated to between 680,000 and 780,000 years ago. [ 40 ] The fossilize tooth of Homo sapiens ( dated to 125,000–80,000 years ago ) have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Dao County, Hunan. [ 41 ] Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, [ 42 ] at Damaidi around 6000 BCE, [ 43 ] Dadiwan from 5800 to 5400 BCE, and Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE. Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols ( 7th millennium BCE ) constituted the earliest chinese writing organization. [ 42 ]

early dynastic rule

According to chinese tradition, the beginning dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE. [ 44 ] The Xia dynasty marked the beginning of China ‘s political system based on familial monarchies, or dynasties, which lasted for a millennium. [ 45 ] The Xia dynasty was considered fabulous by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. [ 46 ] It remains indecipherable whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another acculturation from the lapp period. [ 47 ] The succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. [ 48 ] The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the eleventh century BCE. [ 49 ] Their prophet bone script ( from c. 1500 BCE ) [ 50 ] [ 51 ] represents the oldest class of taiwanese writing so far found [ 52 ] and is a direct ancestor of modern taiwanese characters. [ 53 ] The Shang was conquered by the Zhou, who ruled between the 11th and 5th centuries BCE, though centralized authority was lento eroded by feudal warlords. Some principalities finally emerged from the weakened Zhou, no longer in full obeyed the Zhou king, and continually waged war with each other during the 300-year spring and Autumn period. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th–3rd centuries BCE, there were merely seven herculean states left. [ 54 ]

imperial China

The Warring States period ended in 221 BCE after the express of Qin conquered the other six kingdoms, reunited China and established the dominant allele order of autocracy. King Zheng of Qin proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty. He enacted Qin ‘s legalist reforms throughout China, notably the force standardization of chinese characters, measurements, road widths ( i.e., handcart axles ‘ length ), and currency. His dynasty besides conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and Vietnam. [ 55 ] The Qin dynasty lasted lone fifteen years, falling soon after the First Emperor ‘s end, as his harsh authoritarian policies led to far-flung rebellion. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] Following a widespread civil war during which the imperial library at Xianyang was burned, [ q ] the Han dynasty emerged to rule China between 206 BCE and CE 220, creating a cultural identity among its populace distillery remembered in the ethnonym of the Han Chinese. [ 56 ] [ 57 ] The Han expanded the empire ‘s district well, with military campaigns reaching Central Asia, Mongolia, South Korea, and Yunnan, and the convalescence of Guangdong and northern Vietnam from Nanyue. Han participation in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the farming road of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier way over the Himalayas to India. Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient worldly concern. [ 59 ] Despite the Han ‘s initial decentralization and the official abandonment of the Qin doctrine of Legalism in party favor of Confucianism, Qin ‘s legalist institutions and policies continued to be employed by the Han government and its successors. [ 60 ]
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the second hundred BC After the end of the Han dynasty, a menstruation of discord known as Three Kingdoms followed, [ 61 ] whose cardinal figures were former immortalized in one of the Four Classics of chinese literature. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty. The Jin fell to civil war upon the rise of a developmentally disabled emperor ; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen States. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors ‘ apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into chinese acculturation. In the confederacy, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in privilege of the Liu Song. The assorted successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 581. The Sui restored the Han to ability through China, reformed its agriculture, economy and imperial examination system, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism. however, they fell cursorily when their conscription for public works and a fail war in northerly Korea provoked widespread agitation. [ 62 ] [ 63 ] Under the succeeding Tang and Song dynasties, taiwanese economy, technology, and culture entered a gold age. [ 64 ] The Tang Empire retained dominance of the western Regions and the Silk Road, [ 65 ] which brought traders to vitamin a far as Mesopotamia and the Horn of Africa, [ 66 ] and made the capital Chang’an a cosmopolitan urban center. however, it was devastated and weakened by the An Lushan Rebellion in the eighth hundred. [ 67 ] In 907, the Tang disintegrated wholly when the local military governors became indocile. The Song dynasty ended the breakaway situation in 960, leading to a symmetry of exponent between the Song and Khitan Liao. The song was the first government in world history to issue wallpaper money and the first taiwanese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the develop shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade wind. [ 68 ]
The Tang dynasty at its greatest extent Between the 10th and 11th centuries, the population of China doubled in size to around 100 million people, largely because of the expansion of rice cultivation in cardinal and southerly China, and the product of abundant food surpluses. The Song dynasty besides saw a revival of Confucianism, in reception to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang, [ 69 ] and a booming of philosophy and the arts, as landscape artwork and porcelain were brought to new levels of maturity and complexity. [ 70 ] [ 71 ] however, the military weakness of the Song army was observed by the Jurchen Jin dynasty. In 1127, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin–Song Wars. The remnants of the Song retreated to southern China. [ 72 ] The Mongol conquest of China began in 1205 with the gradual conquest of western Xia by Genghis Khan, [ 73 ] who besides invaded Jin territories. [ 74 ] In 1271, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty, which conquered the last end of the Song dynasty in 1279. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 120 million citizens ; this was reduced to 60 million by the time of the census in 1300. [ 75 ] A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang led a rebellion that overthrew the yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor. Under the Ming dynasty, China enjoyed another aureate long time, developing one of the strongest navies in the universe and a rich and comfortable economy amid a thrive of art and culture. It was during this menstruation that admiral Zheng He led the Ming care for voyages throughout the indian Ocean, reaching deoxyadenosine monophosphate far as East Africa. [ 76 ]
In the early on years of the Ming dynasty, China ‘s capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing. With the bud of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo-Confucianism with concepts of individuality and equality of four occupations. [ 77 ] The scholar-official class became a supporting force of diligence and commerce in the tax boycott movements, which, together with the famines and defense mechanism against japanese invasions of Korea ( 1592–1598 ) and Manchu invasions led to an run down treasury. [ 78 ] In 1644, Beijing was captured by a coalescence of peasant insurgent forces led by Li Zicheng. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell. The Manchu Qing dynasty, then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui, overthrew Li ‘s ephemeral Shun dynasty and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the fresh capital of the Qing dynasty. [ citation needed ] The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1644 until 1912, was the last imperial dynasty of China. Its seduction of the Ming ( 1618–1683 ) cost 25 million lives and the economy of China shrank drastically. [ 79 ] After the southerly Ming ended, the far conquest of the Dzungar Khanate added Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang to the empire. [ 80 ] The centralized autocracy was strengthened to suppress anti-Qing sentiment with the policy of valuing agribusiness and restraining department of commerce, the Haijin ( “ sea ban ” ), and ideological control as represented by the literary inquisition, causing social and technical stagnation. [ 81 ] [ 82 ]

fall of the Qing dynasty

In the mid-19th century, the Qing dynasty experienced western imperialism in the Opium Wars with Britain and France. China was forced to pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the british [ 83 ] under the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, the foremost of the unequal Treaties. The first Sino-Japanese War ( 1894–1895 ) resulted in Qing China ‘s loss of influence in the Korean Peninsula, ampere well as the cession of Taiwan to Japan. [ 84 ] The Qing dynasty besides began experiencing internal unrest in which tens of millions of people died, particularly in the White Lotus Rebellion, the fail Taiping Rebellion that ravaged southerly China in the 1850s and 1860s and the Dungan Revolt ( 1862–1877 ) in the northwest. The initial achiever of the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s was frustrated by a series of military defeats in the 1880s and 1890s. [ citation needed ] In the nineteenth hundred, the great chinese diaspora began. Losses due to emigration were added to by conflicts and catastrophes such as the Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879, in which between 9 and 13 million people died. [ 85 ] The Guangxu Emperor drafted a reform plan in 1898 to establish a modern built-in monarchy, but these plans were thwarted by the Empress Dowager Cixi. The doomed anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion of 1899–1901 further weakened the dynasty. Although Cixi sponsored a program of reforms, the Xinhai Revolution of 1911–1912 brought an end to the Qing dynasty and established the Republic of China. [ 86 ] Puyi, the last emperor of China, abdicated in 1912. [ 87 ]

establishment of the Republic and World War II

On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China was established, and Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang ( the KMT or Nationalist Party ) was proclaimed probationary president of the united states. [ 88 ] On 12 February 1912, regent Empress Dowager Longyu sealed the imperial abdication rule on behalf of 4 year old Puyi, the last emperor of China, ending 5,000 years of monarchy in China. [ 89 ] In March 1912, the presidency was given to Yuan Shikai, a former Qing general who in 1915 proclaimed himself Emperor of China. In the font of popular execration and opposition from his own Beiyang Army, he was forced to abdicate and re-establish the democracy in 1916. [ 90 ] After Yuan Shikai ‘s death in 1916, China was politically break up. Its Beijing-based government was internationally recognized but about powerless ; regional warlords controlled most of its district. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] In the recently 1920s, the Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek, the then Principal of the Republic of China Military Academy, was able to reunify the country under its own command with a serial of deft military and political maneuverings, known jointly as the Northern Expedition. [ 93 ] [ 94 ] The Kuomintang moved the state ‘s capital to Nanjing and implemented “ political care ”, an average stage of political development outlined in Sun Yat-sen ‘s San-min program for transforming China into a modern democratic state. [ 95 ] [ 96 ] The political division in China made it difficult for Chiang to conflict the communist -led People ‘s Liberation Army ( PLA ), against whom the Kuomintang had been warring since 1927 in the chinese Civil War. This war continued successfully for the Kuomintang, particularly after the PLA retreated in the Long March, until japanese aggression and the 1936 Xi’an Incident forced Chiang to confront Imperial Japan. [ 97 ]
The Second Sino-Japanese War ( 1937–1945 ), a theater of World War II, forced an restless alliance between the Kuomintang and the Communists. japanese forces committed numerous war atrocities against the civilian population ; in all, american samoa many as 20 million chinese civilians died. [ 98 ] An calculate 40,000 to 300,000 Chinese were massacred in the city of Nanjing entirely during the japanese occupation. [ 99 ] During the war, China, along with the UK, the United States, and the Soviet Union, were referred to as “ trust territory of the brawny ” [ 100 ] and were recognized as the Allied “ Big Four “ in the Declaration by United Nations. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] Along with the other three bang-up powers, China was one of the four major Allies of World War II, and was late considered one of the elementary victors in the war. [ 103 ] [ 104 ] After the giving up of Japan in 1945, Taiwan, including the Pescadores, was returned to chinese see. China emerged triumphant but war-ravaged and financially drained. The retain misgiving between the Kuomintang and the Communists led to the resumption of civil war. constitutional rule was established in 1947, but because of the ongoing agitation, many provisions of the ROC united states constitution were never implemented in mainland China. [ 105 ]

Civil War and the People ‘s Republic

major fight in the chinese Civil War ended in 1949 with the CCP reach control of most of mainland China, and the Kuomintang retreating offshore to Taiwan, reducing its territory to only Taiwan, Hainan, and their encompassing islands. On 1 October 1949, CCP Chairman Mao Zedong formally proclaimed the administration of the People ‘s Republic of China at the newfangled nation ‘s establish ceremony and inaugural military parade in Tiananmen Square, Beijing. [ 106 ] [ 107 ] In 1950, the People ‘s Liberation Army captured Hainan from the ROC [ 108 ] and incorporated Tibet. [ 109 ] however, remaining Kuomintang forces continued to engage an insurgency in western China throughout the 1950s. [ 110 ] The government consolidated its popularity among the peasants through land reform, which included the execution of between 1 and 2 million landlords. [ 111 ] China developed an independent industrial system and its own nuclear weapons. [ 112 ] The chinese population increased from 550 million in 1950 to 900 million in 1974. [ 113 ] however, the Great Leap Forward, an ideal massive reform project, resulted in an calculate 15 to 35 million deaths between 1958 and 1961, largely from starvation. [ 114 ] [ 115 ] In 1966, Mao and his allies launched the Cultural Revolution, sparking a ten of political recrimination and social convulsion that lasted until Mao ‘s death in 1976. In October 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China in the United Nations, and took its seat as a permanent member of the Security Council. [ 116 ]

Reforms and contemporary history

After Mao ‘s death, the Gang of Four was promptly arrested by Hua Guofeng and held responsible for the excesses of the cultural Revolution. Elder Deng Xiaoping took exponent in 1978, and instituted meaning economic reforms. The CCP loosened governmental control over citizens ‘ personal lives, and the communes were gradually disbanded in prefer of working contracted to households. This marked China ‘s transition from a aforethought economy to a blend economy with an increasingly open-market environment. [ 117 ] China adopted its stream constitution on 4 December 1982. In 1989, the suppression of scholar protests in Tiananmen Square brought condemnations and sanctions against the chinese politics from versatile alien countries. [ 118 ] Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. Under their administration, China ‘s economic performance pulled an estimated [ by whom? ] 150 million peasants out of poverty and sustained an modal annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2 %. [ 119 ] [ better source needed ] British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macau returned to China in 1997 and 1999, respectively, as the Hong Kong and Macau extra administrative regions under the rationale of One nation, two systems. The country joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, and maintained its high rate of economic growth under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao ‘s leadership in the 2000s. however, the growth besides hard impacted the state ‘s resources and environment, [ 120 ] [ 121 ] and caused major social displacement. [ 122 ] [ 123 ] taiwanese Communist Party general secretary Xi Jinping has ruled since 2012 and has pursued large-scale efforts to reform China ‘s economy [ 124 ] [ 125 ] ( which has suffered from morphologic instabilities and slowing growth ), [ 126 ] [ 127 ] [ 128 ] and has besides reformed the one-child policy and penal arrangement, [ 129 ] ampere well as instituting a huge anti corruption crackdown. [ 130 ] In 2013, China initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a global infrastructure investment project. [ 131 ] On 1 July 2021, the People ‘s Republic of China celebrated the hundredth anniversary of the institution of the CCP ( first of the Two Centenaries ) with a huge assemble in Tiananmen Square and cultural artistic operation in Beijing National Stadium in Beijing. [ 132 ]


China ‘s landscape is huge and divers, ranging from the Gobi and Taklamakan Deserts in the arid north to the subtropical forests in the bedwetter south. The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges offprint China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third- and sixth-longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populate easterly seaside. China ‘s coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometer ( 9,000 nautical mile ) long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China connects through the Kazakh surround to the Eurasian Steppe which has been an artery of communication between East and West since the Neolithic through the Steppe Route – the ancestor of the tellurian Silk Road ( mho ). [ citation needed ] The district of China lies between latitudes 18° and 54° N, and longitudes 73° and 135° E. The geographic center of China is marked by the Center of the Country Monument at. China ‘s landscapes vary importantly across its huge district. In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea, there are extensive and densely populate alluvial plains, while on the edges of the Inner Mongolian tableland in the north, broad grasslands predominate. southerly China is dominated by hills and low mountain ranges, while the central-east hosts the delta of China ‘s two major rivers, the Yellow River and the Yangtze River. early major rivers include the Xi, Mekong, Brahmaputra and Amur. To the west sit major batch ranges, most notably the Himalayas. High tableland feature among the more arid landscapes of the north, such as the Taklamakan and the Gobi Desert. The world ‘s highest point, Mount Everest ( 8,848 megabyte ), lies on the Sino-Nepalese edge. [ 133 ] The nation ‘s lowest point, and the universe ‘s third-lowest, is the dried lake bed of Ayding Lake ( −154 thousand ) in the Turpan Depression. [ 134 ]


China ‘s climate is chiefly dominated by dry seasons and moisture monsoons, which lead to pronounce temperature differences between winter and summer. In the winter, northern winds coming from high-latitude areas are cold and dry ; in summer, southerly winds from coastal areas at lower latitudes are affectionate and damp. [ 136 ] A major environmental consequence in China is the continue expansion of its deserts, particularly the Gobi Desert. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] Although barrier tree lines planted since the 1970s have reduced the frequency of sandstorms, prolonged drought and poor agricultural practices have resulted in dust storms plaguing northerly China each spring, which then spread to other parts of East Asia, including Japan and Korea. China ‘s environmental watchdog, SEPA, stated in 2007 that China is losing 4,000 km2 ( 1,500 sq secret intelligence service ) per year to desertification. [ 139 ] Water choice, erosion, and pollution control have become important issues in China ‘s relations with other countries. Melting glaciers in the Himalayas could potentially lead to water shortages for hundreds of millions of people. [ 140 ] According to academics, in order to limit climate change in China to 1.5 °C ( 2.7 °F ) electricity generation from coal in China without carbon paper capture must be phased out by 2045. [ 141 ] official politics statistics about taiwanese agrarian productiveness are considered undependable, due to exaggeration of output at subordinate government levels. [ 142 ] [ 143 ] much of China has a climate identical desirable for farming and the nation has been the world ‘s largest manufacturer of rice, pale yellow, tomatoes, eggplant, grapes, watermelon, spinach, and many other crops. [ 144 ]


China is one of 17 megadiverse countries, [ 145 ] lying in two of the worldly concern ‘s major biogeographic kingdom : the Palearctic and the Indomalayan. By one meter, China has over 34,687 species of animals and vascular plants, making it the third-most biodiverse country in the world, after Brazil and Colombia. [ 146 ] The country signed the Rio de Janeiro Convention on Biological Diversity on 11 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 5 January 1993. [ 147 ] It later produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision that was received by the convention on 21 September 2010. [ 148 ] China is home to at least 551 species of mammals ( the third-highest such count in the world ), [ 149 ] 1,221 species of birds ( one-eighth ), [ 150 ] 424 species of reptiles ( seventh ) [ 151 ] and 333 species of amphibians ( seventh ). [ 152 ] Wildlife in China shares habitat with, and bears acute accent pressure from, the global ‘s largest population of humans. At least 840 animal species are threatened, vulnerable or in danger of local anesthetic extinction in China, due chiefly to human activeness such as habitat destruction, befoulment and poaching for food, fur and ingredients for traditional taiwanese medicine. [ 153 ] Endangered wildlife is protected by law, and as of 2005, the country has over 2,349 nature reserves, covering a total area of 149.95 million hectares, 15 percentage of China ‘s sum land area. [ 154 ] [ better source needed ] Most wilderness animals have been eliminated from the core agricultural regions of east and central China, but they have fared better in the mountainous confederacy and west. [ 155 ] [ 156 ] The Baiji was confirmed extinct on 12 December 2006. [ 157 ] China has over 32,000 species of vascular plants, [ 158 ] and is home to a kind of forest types. Cold coniferous forests predominate in the north of the nation, supporting animal species such as elk and asian black hold, along with over 120 bird species. [ 159 ] The understory of damp conifer forests may contain thickets of bamboo. In higher montane stands of juniper and yew, the bamboo is replaced by rhododendrons. subtropical forests, which are predominate in cardinal and southern China, back a high gear concentration of establish species including numerous rare endemics. Tropical and seasonal worker rainforests, though confined to Yunnan and Hainan Island, contain a draw of all the animal and implant species found in China. [ 159 ] China has over 10,000 read species of fungi, [ 160 ] and of them, closely 6,000 are higher fungus. [ 161 ]


In the early 2000s, China has suffered from environmental deterioration and contamination due to its rapid tempo of industrialization. [ 162 ] [ 163 ] While regulations such as the 1979 Environmental Protection Law are fairly rigorous, they are ailing enforced, as they are frequently disregarded by local anesthetic communities and government officials in favor of rapid economic development. [ 164 ] China is the country with the moment highest death toll because of air contamination, after India. There are approximately 1 million deaths caused by exposure to ambient air travel befoulment. [ 165 ] [ 166 ] Although China ranks as the highest carbon dioxide emitting country in the world, [ 167 ] it alone emits 8 tons of CO2 per head, importantly lower than develop countries such as the United States ( 16.1 ), Australia ( 16.8 ) and South Korea ( 13.6 ). [ 168 ] In recent years, China has clamped down on befoulment. In March 2014, CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping “ declared war ” on pollution during the opening of the National People ‘s Congress. [ 169 ] After extensive argue lasting closely two years, the fantan approved a new environmental law in April. The new law empowers environmental enforcement agencies with great punitive power and bombastic fines for offenders, defines areas which require extra protective covering, and gives independent environmental groups more ability to operate in the country. [ citation needed ] In 2020, Chinese Communist Party general repository Xi Jinping announced that China aims to peak emissions before 2030 and go carbon-neutral by 2060 in accord with the Paris climate treaty. [ 170 ] According to Climate Action Tracker, if accomplished it would lower the expect rise in ball-shaped temperature by 0.2 – 0.3 degrees – “ the biggest single reduction always estimated by the Climate Action Tracker ”. [ 171 ] In September 2021 Xi Jinping announced that China will not build “ coal-fired power projects overseas ”. The decision can be “ pivotal ” in reducing emissions. The Belt and Road Initiative did not include finance such projects already in the first half of 2021. [ 172 ] The area besides had significant water contamination problems : 8.2 % of China ‘s rivers had been polluted by industrial and agricultural waste in 2019. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] China had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.14/10, ranking it 53rd globally out of 172 countries. [ 175 ] In 2020, a sweep police was passed by the chinese politics to protect the ecology of the Yangtze River. The fresh laws include strengthening ecological protective covering rules for hydropower projects along the river, banning chemical plants within 1 kilometer of the river, relocating polluting industries, badly restricting sand mining a well as a complete fishing ban on all the natural waterways of the river, including all its major tributaries and lakes. [ 176 ] China is besides the world ‘s leading investor in renewable energy and its commercialization, with $ 52 billion invested in 2011 alone ; [ 177 ] [ 178 ] [ 179 ] it is a major manufacturer of renewable energy technologies and invests heavily in local-scale renewable department of energy projects. [ 180 ] [ 181 ] [ 182 ] By 2015, over 24 % of China ‘s energy was derived from renewable sources, while most notably from hydroelectric world power : a total install capacity of 197 GW makes China the largest hydroelectric world power producer in the worldly concern. [ 183 ] [ 184 ] China besides has the largest world power capacity of install solar photovoltaics system and wind ability system in the world. [ 185 ] [ 186 ] Greenhouse gas emissions by China are the earth ‘s largest, [ 168 ] as is renewable energy in China. [ 187 ]

political geography

Map showing the territorial claims of the PRC. The People ‘s Republic of China is the second-largest state in the world by land area after Russia. [ radius ] [ south ] China ‘s sum area is generally stated as being approximately 9,600,000 km2 ( 3,700,000 sq security service ). [ 188 ] [ better source needed ] Specific area figures range from 9,572,900 km2 ( 3,696,100 sq nautical mile ) according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, [ 189 ] to 9,596,961 km2 ( 3,705,407 sq myocardial infarction ) according to the UN Demographic Yearbook, [ 5 ] and the CIA World Factbook. [ 8 ] China has the longest combine land molding in the global, measuring 22,117 kilometer ( 13,743 mi ) and its coastline covers approximately 14,500 km ( 9,000 secret intelligence service ) from the mouthpiece of the Yalu River ( Amnok River ) to the Gulf of Tonkin. [ 8 ] China borders 14 nations and extends across much of East Asia, bordering Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar ( Burma ) in Southeast Asia ; India, Bhutan, Nepal, Afghanistan, and Pakistan [ deoxythymidine monophosphate ] in South Asia ; Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in Central Asia ; and Russia, Mongolia, and North Korea in Inner Asia and Northeast Asia. additionally, China shares maritime boundaries with South Korea, Japan, Vietnam, and the Philippines. [ citation needed ]


The taiwanese fundamental law states that The People ‘s Republic of China “ is a socialistic state governed by a people ‘s democratic dictatorship that is led by the shape class and based on an alliance of workers and peasants, ” and that the department of state institutions “ shall commit the principle of democratic centralism. ” [ 190 ] The PRC is one of the populace ‘s lone socialist states governed by a communist party. The chinese government has been variously described as communist and socialist, but besides as authoritarian [ 191 ] and corporatist, [ 192 ] with heavy restrictions in many areas, most notably against dislodge access to the Internet, freedom of the imperativeness, exemption of assembly, the correct to have children, barren formation of social organizations and freedom of religion. [ 193 ] presently, China is not a democracy. It is an authoritarian state which has been characterized as a totalitarian surveillance state, and a dictatorship. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] [ 196 ] [ 197 ] [ 198 ] [ 199 ] Its current political, ideological and economic system has been termed by its leaders as a “ advisory democracy “ “ people ‘s democratic dictatorship “, “ socialism with chinese characteristics “ ( which is Marxism adapted to Chinese circumstances ) and the “ socialistic market economy “ respectively. [ 200 ] [ 201 ]

Communist Party

Since 2018, the independent torso of the chinese fundamental law declares that “ the define feature of socialism with taiwanese characteristics is the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ). ” [ 202 ] The 2018 amendments constitutionalized the de facto one-party state status of China, [ 202 ] wherein the CCP General Secretary ( party drawing card ) holds ultimate power and agency over state and government and serves as the informal Paramount leader. [ 203 ] The current General Secretary is eleven Jinping, who took office on 15 November 2012, and was re-elected on 25 October 2017. [ 204 ] The electoral system is pyramidal. local anesthetic People ‘s Congresses are directly elected, and higher levels of People ‘s Congresses up to the National People ‘s Congress ( NPC ) are indirectly elected by the People ‘s Congress of the level immediately below. [ 190 ] Another eight political parties, have representatives in the NPC and the taiwanese People ‘s Political Consultative Conference ( CPPCC ). [ 205 ] China supports the Leninist principle of “ democratic centralism “, [ 190 ] but critics describe the elective National People ‘s Congress as a “ rubber stamp “ torso. [ 206 ] Since both the CCP and the People ‘s Liberation Army ( PLA ) promote according to longevity, it is potential to discern distinct generations of chinese leadership. [ 207 ] In official discourse, each group of leadership is identified with a distinct elongation of the ideology of the party. Historians have studied diverse periods in the exploitation of the government of the People ‘s Republic of China by reference to these “ generations ” .


China is a one-party express led by the Chinese Communist Party ( CCP ). The National People ‘s Congress in 2018 altered the state ‘s united states constitution to remove the two-term terminus ad quem on holding the Presidency of China, permitting the current drawing card, Xi Jinping, to remain president of China ( and General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party ) for an unlimited time, earning criticism for creating authoritarian government. [ 208 ] [ 209 ] The President is the titular point of state, elected by the National People ‘s Congress. The Premier is the oral sex of government, presiding over the State Council composed of four vice premiers and the heads of ministries and commissions. The incumbent president is Xi Jinping, who is besides the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party and the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, making him China ‘s overriding drawing card. The incumbent chancellor is Li Keqiang, who is besides a senior member of the CCP Politburo Standing Committee, China ‘s de facto top decision-making soundbox. [ 210 ] [ 211 ] In 2017, Xi called on the communist party to further tighten its grip on the nation, to uphold the oneness of the party leadership, and achieve the “ taiwanese Dream of national rejuvenation ”. [ 200 ] [ 212 ] Political concerns in China include the growing gap between rich and poor and politics corruption. [ 213 ] Nonetheless, the level of public support for the government and its management of the state is high gear, with 80–95 % of taiwanese citizens expressing atonement with the central government, according to a 2011 review. [ 214 ] A 2020 sketch from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research besides found that 75 % of Chinese were satisfied with the politics on data dissemination amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, while 67 % were quenched with its delivery of day by day necessities. [ 215 ] [ 216 ]

administrative divisions

The People ‘s Republic of China is formally divided into 23 provinces, [ 217 ] five autonomous regions ( each with a intend minority group ), and four municipalities —collectively referred to as “ mainland China “ —as well as the limited administrative regions ( SARs ) of Hong Kong and Macau. Geographically, all 31 provincial divisions of mainland China can be grouped into six regions : North China, Northeast China, East China, South Central China, Southwest China, and Northwest China. [ 218 ] China considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province, [ 217 ] although Taiwan is governed by the Republic of China ( ROC ), which rejects the PRC ‘s claim. conversely, the ROC constitution claims sovereignty over all divisions governed by the PRC. [ 219 ]

foreign relations

diplomatic relations of China The PRC has diplomatic relations with 175 countries and maintains embassies in 162. In 2019, China had the largest diplomatic network in the world. [ 220 ] [ 221 ] Its legitimacy is disputed by the Republic of China and a few other countries ; it is thus the largest and most populous department of state with express recognition, with a population of more than 1.4 billion. [ 222 ] In 1971, the PRC replaced the Republic of China as the sole representative of China in the United Nations and as one of the five permanent wave members of the United Nations Security Council. [ 223 ] China was besides a erstwhile penis and leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, and even considers itself an advocate for developing countries. [ 224 ] Along with Brazil, Russia, India and South Africa, China is a member of the BRICS group of emerging major economies and hosted the group ‘s third gear official summit at Sanya, Hainan in April 2011. [ 225 ] Under its interpretation of the One-China policy, Beijing has made it a precondition to establishing diplomatic relations that the other area acknowledges its claim to Taiwan and severs official ties with the government of the Republic of China. [ citation needed ] Chinese officials have protested on numerous occasions when foreign countries have made diplomatic overtures to Taiwan, [ 226 ] specially in the matter of arming sales. [ 227 ] much of current chinese extraneous policy is reportedly based on Premier Zhou Enlai ‘s Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and is besides driven by the concept of “ harmony without uniformity ”, which encourages diplomatic relations between states despite ideological differences. [ 228 ] This policy may have led China to support states that are regarded as dangerous or inhibitory by western nations, such as Zimbabwe, North Korea and Iran. [ 229 ] China has a close up economic and military relationship with Russia, [ 230 ] and the two states much vote in unison in the UN Security Council. [ 231 ] [ 232 ] [ 233 ]

Trade relations

China became the worldly concern ‘s largest deal state in 2013, as measured by the sum of imports and exports, a well as the world ‘s biggest commodity importer. comprising roughly 45 % of maritime ‘s dry-bulk commercialize. [ 234 ] [ 235 ] By 2016, China was the largest trade partner of 124 other countries. [ 236 ] China is the largest trading collaborator for the ASEAN nations, with a total trade value of $ 345.8 billion in 2015 account for 15.2 % of ASEAN ‘s full trade. [ 237 ] ASEAN is besides China ‘s largest trade partner. [ 238 ] In 2020, China became the largest trade partner of the European Union for goods, with the entire value of goods deal reaching about $ 700 billion. [ 239 ] China, along with ASEAN, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand, is a member of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, the worldly concern ‘s largest free-trade area covering 30 % of the earth ‘s population and economic end product. [ 240 ] China became a member of the World Trade Organization ( WTO ) in 2001. In 2004, it proposed an wholly modern East Asia Summit ( EAS ) framework as a forum for regional security system issues. [ 241 ] The EAS, which includes ASEAN Plus Three, India, Australia and New Zealand, held its inauguration summit in 2005. [ 242 ] China has had a long and complex barter relationship with the United States. In 2000, the United States Congress approved “ permanent wave normal trade relations ” ( PNTR ) with China, allowing chinese exports in at the like moo tariffs as goods from most other countries. [ 243 ] China has a meaning trade excess with the United States, its most authoritative export market. [ 244 ] In the early 2010s, US politicians argued that the chinese yuan was significantly undervalued, giving China an unfair trade advantage. [ 245 ] [ 246 ] [ 247 ] [ needs update ] Since the turn of the hundred, China has followed a policy of engaging with african nations for barter and bilateral co-operation ; [ 248 ] [ 249 ] [ 250 ] in 2019, Sino-African trade totalled $ 208 billion, having grown 20 times over two decades. [ 251 ] According to Madison Condon “ China finances more infrastructure projects in Africa than the World Bank and provides billions of dollars in low-interest loans to the continent ‘s emerge economies. ” [ 252 ] China maintains extensive and highly diversify craft links with the European Union. [ 239 ] China has furthermore strengthened its trade ties with major confederacy american english economies, [ 253 ] and is the largest trading partner of Brazil, Chile, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina, and several others. [ 254 ] China ‘s Belt and Road Initiative has expanded importantly over the last six years and, as of April 2020, includes 138 countries and 30 international organizations. In addition to intensifying foreign policy relations, the focus here is particularly on build up efficient enchant routes. The focus is particularly on the nautical Silk Road with its connections to East Africa and Europe and there are chinese investments or associate declarations of purpose at numerous ports such as Gwadar, Kuantan, Hambantota, Piraeus and Trieste. however many of these loans made under the Belt and Road course of study are unsustainable and China has faced a act of calls for debt easing from debtor nations. [ 255 ] [ 256 ]

territorial disputes


Map depicting territorial disputes between the PRC and adjacent states. For a larger map, see here always since its establishment after the chinese Civil War, the PRC has claimed the territories governed by the Republic of China ( ROC ), a separate political entity nowadays normally known as Taiwan, as a contribution of its district. It regards the island of Taiwan as its Taiwan Province, Kinmen and Matsu as a part of Fujian Province and islands the ROC controls in the South China Sea as a partially of Hainan Province and Guangdong Province. These claims are controversial because of the complicate Cross-Strait relations, with the PRC treating the One-China policy as one of its most authoritative diplomatic principles. [ 257 ] [ better source needed ]

Land edge disputes

China has resolved its domain borders with 12 out of 14 neighbor countries, having pursued substantial compromises in most of them. [ 258 ] [ 259 ] [ 260 ] As of 2020, China presently has a disputed down border with only India and Bhutan. [ citation needed ]

Maritime bound disputes

China is additionally involved in nautical disputes with multiple countries over the ownership of respective minor islands in the East and South China Seas, such as the Senkaku Islands and the Scarborough Shoal. [ 261 ] [ 262 ]

Sociopolitical issues and homo rights

China uses a massive espionage network of cameras, facial realization software, sensors, surveillance of personal technology, and a sociable citation system as a intend of social control of persons living in the nation. [ 263 ] The Chinese democracy apparent motion, social activists, and some members of the Chinese Communist Party believe in the necessitate for social and political reform. While economic and social controls have been significantly relaxed in China since the 1970s, political freedom is even tightly restricted. The constitution of the People ‘s Republic of China states that the “ cardinal rights ” of citizens include freedom of speech, freedom of the press, the right to a fairly trial, freedom of religion, universal right to vote, and property rights. however, in practice, these provisions do not afford significant protection against condemnable prosecution by the state. [ 264 ] [ 265 ] Although some criticisms of government policies and the ruling Communist Party are tolerated, censoring of political actor’s line and data, most notably on the Internet, [ 266 ] [ 267 ] are routinely used to prevent collective action. [ 268 ] By 2020, China plans to give all its citizens a personal “ sociable credit ” score based on how they behave. [ 269 ] [ needs update ] The social credit system, first piloted in 2014, is considered a shape of mass surveillance which uses big data analysis engineering. [ 270 ] [ 271 ] A number of alien governments, alien press agencies, and NGOs have criticized China ‘s homo rights record, alleging far-flung civil rights violations such as detention without test, coerce abortions, [ 272 ] forced confessions, torture, restrictions of fundamental rights, [ 193 ] [ 273 ] and excessive use of the death punishment. [ 274 ] [ 275 ] The government suppresses popular protests and demonstrations that it considers a electric potential threat to “ social stability ”, as was the lawsuit with the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. [ 276 ]
The chinese state is regularly accused of large-scale repression and human rights abuses in Tibet [ 278 ] [ 279 ] and Xinjiang, [ 280 ] including crimson police crackdowns and religious suppression throughout the chinese nation. [ 281 ] [ 282 ] At least one million members of China ‘s Muslim Uyghur minority have been detained in mass detention camps, termed “ vocational education and prepare Centers ”, aimed at changing the political think of detainees, their identities, and their religious beliefs. [ 283 ] According to the U.S. Department of State, actions including political indoctrination, torture, physical and psychological misuse, forced sterilization, sexual maltreatment, and forced labor are common in these facilities. [ 284 ] The express has besides sought to control offshore report of tensions in Xinjiang, intimidating foreign-based reporters by detaining their syndicate members. [ 285 ] According to a 2020 report, China ‘s treatment of Uyghurs meets UN definition of genocide, [ 286 ] and several groups called for a UN investigation. [ 287 ] On 19 January 2021, the United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, announced that the United States Department of State had determined that “ genocide and crimes against world ” had been perpetrated by China against the Uyghurs. [ 288 ]
global studies from Pew Research Center in 2014 and 2017 ranked the chinese government ‘s restrictions on religion as among the highest in the global, despite low to moderate rankings for religious-related social hostilities in the country. [ 289 ] [ 290 ] The Global Slavery Index estimated that in 2016 more than 3.8 million people were living in “ conditions of advanced slavery “, or 0.25 % of the population, including victims of human traffic, forced department of labor, constrained marriage, child labor movement, and state-imposed force labor. The state-imposed forced organization was formally abolished in 2013, but it is not clear to which extent its assorted practices have stopped. [ 291 ] The Chinese penal arrangement includes department of labor prison factories, detention centers, and re-education camps, jointly known as laogai ( “ reform through labor ” ). The Laogai Research Foundation in the United States estimated that there were over a thousand slave parturiency prisons and camps in China. [ 292 ] In 2019, a report called for the mass retraction of more than 400 scientific papers on electric organ transplant, because of fears the organs were obtained unethically from taiwanese prisoners. While the politics says 10,000 transplants occur each year, a report by the Falun Gong -linked IETAC alleged that between 60,000 and 100,000 organs are transplanted each year and claimed that this gap was being made up by execute prisoners of conscience. [ 293 ]


With closely 2.2 million active troops, the People ‘s Liberation Army ( PLA ) is the largest standing military military unit in the world, commanded by the Central Military Commission ( CMC ). [ 294 ] China has the second-biggest military allow push, only behind North Korea. [ citation needed ] The PLA consists of the Ground Force ( PLAGF ), the Navy ( PLAN ), the Air Force ( PLAAF ), the Rocket Force ( PLARF ) and the Strategic Support Force ( PLASSF ). According to the chinese politics, military budget for 2017 totalled US $ 151.5 billion, constituting the universe ‘s second-largest military budget, although the military expenditures-GDP proportion with 1.3 % of GDP is below populace average. [ 295 ] however, many authorities – including SIPRI and the U.S. Office of the Secretary of Defense claim that China hides its real level of military spend, which is allegedly much higher than the official budget. [ 295 ] [ 296 ] China boasts the global ‘s third-most powerful military, [ 297 ] with the global ‘s third-largest reserve of nuclear weapons. [ 298 ]



A proportional representation of chinese exports, 2019 Since 2010, China has had the earth ‘s second-largest economy in terms of nominative GDP, [ 300 ] totaling approximately US $ 15.66 trillion ( 101.6 trillion Yuan ) as of 2020. [ 301 ] [ 302 ] In terms of purchasing might parity ( PPP GDP ), China ‘s economy has been the largest in the populace since 2014, according to the World Bank. [ 303 ] China is besides the worldly concern ‘s fastest-growing major economy. [ 304 ] According to the World Bank, China ‘s GDP grew from $ 150 billion in 1978 to $ 14.28 trillion by 2019. [ 305 ] China ‘s economic growth has been systematically above 6 percentage since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978. [ 306 ] China is besides the world ‘s largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. [ 307 ] Between 2010 and 2019, China ‘s contribution to ball-shaped GDP growth has been 25 % to 39 %. [ 308 ] [ 309 ] China had one of the largest economies in the world for most of the past two thousand years, [ 310 ] during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and worsen. [ 311 ] [ 312 ] Since economic reforms began in 1978, China has developed into a highly diversify economy and one of the most consequential players in international deal. major sectors of competitive potency include fabrication, retail, mine, steel, textiles, automobiles, energy genesis, green energy, banking, electronics, telecommunications, veridical estate, e-commerce, and tourism. China has three out of the ten largest store exchanges in the world [ 313 ] — Shanghai, Hong Kong and Shenzhen —that together have a market capitalization of over $ 15.9 trillion, as of October 2020. [ 314 ] China has four ( Shanghai, Hong Kong, Beijing, and Shenzhen ) out of the world ‘s top ten most competitive fiscal centers, which is more than any state in the 2020 Global Financial Centres Index. [ 315 ] By 2035, China ‘s four cities ( Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou and Shenzhen ) are projected to be among the global top ten-spot largest cities by nominal GDP according to a composition by Oxford Economics. [ 316 ] China has been the universe ‘s No. 1 manufacturer since 2010, after overtaking the US, which had been No. 1 for the previous hundred years. [ 317 ] [ 318 ] China has besides been No. 2 in high-tech fabrication since 2012, according to US National Science Foundation. [ 319 ] China is the second largest retail market in the world, following to the United States. [ 320 ] China leads the world in e-commerce, accounting for 40 % of the global grocery store share in 2016 [ 321 ] and more than 50 % of the global market share in 2019. [ 322 ] China is the worldly concern ‘s leader in electric vehicles, manufacture and buying one-half of all the circuit board electric cars ( BEV and PHEV ) in the world in 2018. [ 323 ] China is besides the leading producer of batteries for electric vehicles vitamin a well as respective key bare-assed materials for batteries. [ 324 ] China had 174 GW of install solar capacity by the end of 2018, which amounts to more than 40 % of the global solar capacity. [ 325 ] [ 326 ] Foreign and some taiwanese sources have claimed that official chinese government statistics overstate China ‘s economic growth. [ 327 ] [ 328 ] [ 329 ] [ 330 ] however, several western academics and institutions have stated that China ‘s economic growth is higher than indicated by official figures. [ 331 ] [ 332 ] [ 333 ] [ 334 ] [ 335 ] [ 336 ] China has a boastfully cozy economy, which arose as a consequence of the state ‘s economic opening. The informal economy is a reference of use and income for workers, but it is unrecognized and suffers from lower productivity. [ 337 ]

wealth in China

As of 2020, China was second in the world, after the US, in total number of billionaires and full issue of millionaires, with 698 chinese billionaires and 4.4 million millionaires. [ 338 ] [ 339 ] In 2019, China overtook the US as the home to the highest number of people who have a web personal wealth of at least $ 110,000, according to the global wealth report by Credit Suisse. [ 340 ] [ 341 ] According to the Hurun Global Rich List 2020, China is home to five of the global ‘s top ten-spot cities ( Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Guangzhou in the 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 10th spots, respectively ) by the highest numeral of billionaires, which is more than any other country. [ 342 ] China had 85 female billionaires as of January 2021, two-thirds of the global total, and minted 24 new female billionaires in 2020. [ 343 ] however, it ranks behind over 60 countries ( out of around 180 ) in per head economic end product, making it an upper-middle income state. [ 344 ] Additionally, its growth is highly spotty. Its major cities and coastal areas are far more booming compared to rural and inside regions. [ 345 ] China brought more people out of extreme point poverty than any other country in history [ 346 ] —between 1978 and 2018, China reduced extreme poverty by 800 million. China reduced the extreme point poverty rate—per international criterion, it refers to an income of less than $ 1.90/day—from 88 % in 1981 to 1.85 % by 2013. [ 347 ] According to the World Bank, the number of Chinese in extreme point poverty fell from 756 million to 25 million between 1990 and 2013. [ 348 ] The part of people in China know below the external poverty lineage of $ 1.90 per day ( 2011 PPP ) fell to 0.3 % in 2018 from 66.3 % in 1990. Using the lower-middle income poverty note of $ 3.20 per day, the fortune fell to 2.9 % in 2018 from 90.0 % in 1990. Using the upper-middle income poverty note of $ 5.50 per day, the part fell to 17.0 % from 98.3 % in 1990. [ 349 ]

economic growth

China ‘s nominal GDP drift from 1952 to 2015 From its establish in 1949 until belated 1978, the People ‘s Republic of China was a Soviet-style centrally planned economy. Following Mao ‘s death in 1976 and the attendant end of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping and the new chinese leadership began to reform the economy and move towards a more market-oriented assorted economy under one-party principle. Agricultural collectivization was dismantled and farmlands privatized, while foreign trade wind became a major raw focus, leading to the universe of extra Economic Zones ( SEZs ). inefficient state-owned enterprises ( SOEs ) were restructured and unprofitable ones were close instantaneously, resulting in massive speculate losses. [ citation needed ] contemporary China is chiefly characterized as having a market economy based on secret property ownership, [ 350 ] and is one of the leading examples of state capitalism. [ 351 ] [ 352 ] The state placid dominates in strategic “ pillar ” sectors such as department of energy production and grave industries, but secret enterprise has expanded enormously, with around 30 million secret businesses recorded in 2008. [ 353 ] [ 354 ] [ better source needed ] [ 355 ] [ 356 ] In 2018, private enterprises in China accounted for 60 % of GDP, 80 % of urban employment and 90 % of new jobs. [ 357 ] In the early 2010s, China ‘s economic growth rate began to slow amid domestic credit troubles, weakening international necessitate for taiwanese exports and fragility in the global economy. [ 358 ] [ 359 ] [ 360 ] China ‘s GDP was slightly larger than Germany ‘s in 2007 ; however, by 2017, China ‘s $ 12.2 trillion-economy became larger than those of Germany, UK, France and Italy combined. [ 361 ] In 2018, the IMF reiterated its prognosis that China will overtake the US in terms of nominal GDP by 2030. [ 362 ] Economists besides expect China ‘s center class to expand to 600 million people by 2025. [ 363 ] In 2020, China was the lone major economy in the world to grow, recording a 2.3 % growth due to its achiever in taming the coronavirus within its borders. [ 364 ]

China in the global economy

Share of world GDP (PPP)[365]
Year Share
1980 2.32%
1990 4.11%
2000 7.40%
2010 13.89%
2018 18.72%

China is a member of the WTO and is the worldly concern ‘s largest trade power, with a total international trade value of US $ 4.62 trillion in 2018. [ 366 ] Its foreign exchange reserves reached US $ 3.1 trillion as of 2019, [ 367 ] making its reserves by far the global ‘s largest. [ 368 ] [ 369 ] In 2012, China was the world ‘s largest recipient role of inward foreign direct investment ( FDI ), attracting $ 253 billion. [ 370 ] In 2014, China ‘s foreign substitution remittances were $ US64 billion making it the second largest recipient role of remittances in the world. [ 371 ] China besides invests abroad, with a entire outward FDI of $ 62.4 billion in 2012, [ 370 ] and a count of major takeovers of alien firms by chinese companies. [ 372 ] China is a major owner of US public debt, holding trillions of dollars worth of U.S. Treasury bonds. [ 373 ] [ 374 ] China ‘s depreciate switch over rate has caused clash with other major economies, [ 246 ] and it has besides been widely criticized for manufacturing large quantities of forge goods. [ 375 ] [ 376 ]

Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2018[377]

Following the 2007–08 fiscal crisis, taiwanese authorities sought to actively wean off of its dependence on the U.S. dollar as a leave of perceived weaknesses of the external monetary system. [ 378 ] To achieve those ends, China took a series of actions to further the internationalization of the Renminbi. In 2008, China established dim sum bond market and expanded the Cross-Border Trade RMB Settlement Pilot Project, which helps establish pools of offshore RMB fluidity. [ 379 ] [ 380 ] This was followed with bilateral agreements to settle trades directly in renminbi with Russia, [ 381 ] Japan, [ 382 ] Australia, [ 383 ] Singapore, [ 384 ] the United Kingdom, [ 385 ] and Canada. [ 386 ] As a consequence of the rapid internationalization of the renminbi, it became the eighth-most-traded currentness in the world, an emerging international reserve currency, [ 387 ] and a component of the IMF ‘s special string rights ; however, partially due to capital controls that make the renminbi fall short of being a fully convertible currency, it remains far behind the Euro, Dollar and japanese Yen in international deal volumes. [ 388 ]

classify and income inequality

China has had the world ‘s largest middle class population since 2015, [ 389 ] and the in-between class grew to a size of 400 million by 2018. [ 390 ] In 2020, a study by the Brookings Institution forecast that China ‘s middle-class will reach 1.2 billion by 2027 ( about 4 times the entire U.S. population today ), making up one one-fourth of the world sum. [ 391 ] Wages in China have grown a lot in the last 40 years—real ( inflation-adjusted ) wages grew septuple from 1978 to 2007. [ 392 ] By 2018, median wages in chinese cities such as Shanghai were about the like as or higher than the wages in easterly european countries. [ 393 ] China has the populace ‘s highest number of billionaires, with about 878 as of October 2020, increasing at the pace of roughly five per week. [ 394 ] [ 395 ] [ 396 ] China has a high degree of economic inequality, [ 397 ] which has increased in the past few decades. [ 398 ] In 2018 China ‘s Gini coefficient was 0.467, according to the World Bank. [ 12 ]

skill and engineering


Wujing Zongyao of 1044 CE Earliest known written formula for gunpowder, from theof 1044 CE China was a universe leader in science and technology until the Ming dynasty. [ 399 ] Ancient Chinese discoveries and inventions, such as papermaking, print, the compass, and gunpowder ( the Four Great Inventions ), became far-flung across East Asia, the Middle East and late Europe. chinese mathematicians were the first base to use negative numbers. [ 400 ] [ 401 ] By the seventeenth century, the Western hemisphere surpassed China in scientific and technological progress. [ 402 ] The causes of this early modern Great Divergence continue to be debated by scholars. [ 403 ] After repeated military defeats by the European colonial powers and Japan in the nineteenth century, taiwanese reformers began promoting advanced skill and technology as part of the Self-Strengthening Movement. After the Communists came to baron in 1949, efforts were made to organize skill and technology based on the model of the Soviet Union, in which scientific inquiry was separate of central plan. [ 404 ] After Mao ‘s end in 1976, science and technology was promoted as one of the Four Modernizations, [ 405 ] and the Soviet-inspired academician system was gradually reformed. [ 406 ]

Modern earned run average

[407]Huawei headquarters in Shenzhen. Huawei is the world’s largest telecoms-equipment-maker and the second-largest manufacturer of smartphones in the world. Since the end of the Cultural Revolution, China has made significant investments in scientific research [ 408 ] and is quickly catching up with the US in R & D spend. [ 409 ] [ 410 ] In 2017, China spent $ 279 billion on scientific inquiry and exploitation. [ 411 ] According to the OECD, China spent 2.11 % of its GDP on inquiry and growth ( R & D ) in 2016. [ 412 ] Science and technology are seen as critical for achieving China ‘s economic and political goals, and are held as a generator of national pride to a degree sometimes described as “ techno-nationalism ”. [ 413 ] According to the World Intellectual Property Indicators, China received 1.54 million patent applications in 2018, representing about half of patent applications worldwide, more than double the US. [ 414 ] In 2019, China was No. 1 in international patents application. [ 415 ] China was ranked 12th, 3rd in Asia & Oceania region and 2nd for countries with a population of over 100 million in the Global Innovation Index in 2021, it has increased its rank well since 2013, where it was ranked thirty-fifth. [ 416 ] [ 417 ] [ 418 ] [ 419 ] China ranks first globally in the important indicators, including patents, utility models, trademarks, industrial designs, and creative goods exports and it besides has 2 ( Shenzhen-Hong Kong-Guangzhou and Beijing in the 2nd and 3rd spots respectively ) of the ball-shaped exceed 5 skill and engineering clusters, which is more than any other nation. [ 416 ] Chinese technical school companies Huawei and ZTE were the top 2 filers of international patents in 2017. [ 420 ] [ 421 ] Chinese-born academicians have won the Nobel Prize in Physics four times, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and Fields Medal once respectively, though most of them conducted their prize-winning research in western nations. [ u ] [ improper synthesis? ]
China is developing its education arrangement with an vehemence on science, engineering, technology and mathematics ( STEM ) ; in 2009, China graduated over 10,000 PhD engineers, and a many as 500,000 BSc graduates, more than any early country. [ 428 ] China besides became the earth ‘s largest publisher of scientific papers in 2016. [ 429 ] Chinese engineering companies such as Huawei and Lenovo have become universe leaders in telecommunications and personal computer science, [ 430 ] [ 431 ] [ 432 ] and taiwanese supercomputers are systematically ranked among the world ‘s most mighty. [ 433 ] [ 434 ] China has been the universe ‘s largest market for industrial robots since 2013 and will account for 45 % of newly installed robots from 2019 to 2021. [ 435 ] The chinese distance program is one of the earth ‘s most active agent. In 1970, China launched its first satellite, Dong Fang Hong I, becoming the fifth country to do so independently. [ 436 ] In 2003, China became the third base country to independently send humans into space, with Yang Liwei ‘s spaceflight aboard Shenzhou 5 ; as of 2021, thirteen taiwanese nationals have journeyed into space, including two women. In 2011, China ‘s first space station module, Tiangong-1, was launched, marking the first step in a project to assemble a large crewed station by the early 2020s. [ 437 ] In 2013, China successfully landed the Chang’e 3 lander and Yutu rover onto the lunar surface. [ 438 ] In 2016, the inaugural quantum skill satellite was launched in partnership with Austria dedicated to testing the fundamentals of quantum communication in space. [ 439 ] [ 440 ] In 2019, China became the first country to land a probe— Chang’e 4 —on the Far slope of the Moon. [ 441 ] In 2020, the first experimental 6G quiz satellite was launched [ 442 ] [ 443 ] and Chang’e 5 successfully returned lunar month samples to the Earth, making China the third country to do so independently after the United States and the Soviet Union. [ 444 ] In 2021, China became the second nation in history to independently land a rover ( Zhurong ) on Mars, joining the United States. [ 445 ]


After a decades-long infrastructural boom, [ 446 ] China has produced numerous world-leading infrastructural projects : China has the universe ‘s largest bullet gearing network, [ 447 ] the most supertall skyscrapers in the earth, [ 448 ] the populace ‘s largest ability plant ( the Three Gorges Dam ), [ 449 ] the largest energy generation capacitance in the worldly concern, [ 450 ] a ball-shaped satellite navigation system with the largest number of satellites in the populace, [ 451 ] and has initiated the Belt and Road Initiative, a large ball-shaped infrastructure building inaugural with support on the order of $ 50–100 billion per year. [ 452 ] The Belt and Road Initiative could be one of the largest development plans in advanced history. [ 453 ]


China is the largest telecommunication market in the populace and presently has the largest count of active cellphones of any area in the world, with over 1.5 billion subscribers, as of 2018. [ 454 ] It besides has the world ‘s largest number of internet and broadband users, with over 800 million Internet users as of 2018 —equivalent to around 60 % of its population—and about all of them being mobile ampere well. [ 455 ] By 2018, China had more than 1 billion 4G users, accounting for 40 % of world ‘s sum. [ 456 ] China is making rapid advances in 5G —by recently 2018, China had started large-scale and commercial 5G trials. [ 457 ] China Mobile, China Unicom and China Telecom, are the three large providers of mobile and internet in China. China Telecom alone served more than 145 million broadband subscribers and 300 million mobile users ; China Unicom had about 300 million subscribers ; and China Mobile, the biggest of them all, had 925 million users, as of 2018. [ 458 ] [ 459 ] [ 460 ] Combined, the three operators had over 3.4 million 4G base-stations in China. [ 461 ] several taiwanese telecommunication companies, most notably Huawei and ZTE, have been accused of spying for the taiwanese military. [ 462 ] China has developed its own satellite navigation system, dubbed Beidou, which began offering commercial navigation services across Asia in 2012 [ 463 ] ampere well as ball-shaped services by the end of 2018. [ 464 ] [ 465 ] Upon the completion of the 35th Beidou satellite, which was launched into scope on 23 June 2020, Beidou followed GPS and GLONASS as the third completed ball-shaped navigation satellite in the world. [ 466 ]


Since the late 1990s, China ‘s national road network has been importantly expanded through the creation of a network of national highways and expressways. In 2018, China ‘s highways had reached a full duration of 142,500 km ( 88,500 mi ), making it the longest highway system in the world. [ 467 ] China has the world ‘s largest market for automobiles, having surpassed the United States in both car sales and production. A side-effect of the rapid growth of China ‘s road network has been a meaning ascend in traffic accidents, [ 468 ] though the number of fatalities in traffic accidents fell by 20 % from 2007 to 2017. [ 469 ] In urban areas, bicycles remain a common mode of enchant, despite the increasing prevalence of automobiles – as of 2012, there are approximately 470 million bicycles in China. [ 470 ]
China ‘s railways, which are state-owned, are among the busiest in the earth, handling a quarter of the universe ‘s rail traffic volume on only 6 percentage of the worldly concern ‘s tracks in 2006. [ 471 ] [ better source needed ] As of 2017, the nation had 127,000 km ( 78,914 michigan ) of railways, the second longest net in the world. [ 472 ] The railways strain to meet enormous demand particularly during the chinese New Year vacation, when the world ‘s largest annual human migration takes seat. [ 473 ] China ‘s high-speed fulminate ( HSR ) system started construction in the early on 2000s. By the end of 2020, high amphetamine rail in China had reached 37,900 kilometers ( 23,550 miles ) of dedicated lines alone, making it the longest HSR network in the worldly concern. [ 474 ] [ 475 ] Services on the Beijing–Shanghai, Beijing–Tianjin, and Chengdu–Chongqing Lines reach up to 350 km/h ( 217 miles per hour ), making them the fastest conventional high accelerate railway services in the world. With an annual ridership of over 2.29 billion passengers in 2019 it is the world ‘s busiest. [ 476 ] [ better source needed ] The network includes the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen High-Speed Railway, the single longest HSR line in the world, and the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, which has three of longest railroad track bridges in the earth. [ 477 ] The Shanghai Maglev Train, which reaches 431 kilometers per hour ( 268 miles per hour ), is the fastest commercial train serve in the worldly concern. [ 478 ]
Since 2000, the increase of rapid transit systems in chinese cities has accelerated. [ 479 ] As of January 2021, 44 chinese cities have urban aggregate transit systems in mathematical process [ 480 ] and 39 more have metro systems approved. [ 481 ] As of 2020, China boasts the five longest metro systems in the world with the networks in Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu and Shenzhen being the largest. There were approximately 229 airports in 2017, with around 240 planned by 2020. China has over 2,000 river and seaports, about 130 of which are open to alien ship. [ citation needed ] In 2017, the Ports of Shanghai, Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Ningbo-Zhoushan, Guangzhou, Qingdao and Tianjin ranked in the top 10 in the world in container traffic and cargo tonnage. [ 482 ]

Water provision and sanitation

Water supply and sanitation infrastructure in China is facing challenges such as rapid urbanization, angstrom well as water scarcity, contaminant, and befoulment. [ 483 ] According to data presented by the roast Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of WHO and UNICEF in 2015, about 36 % of the rural population in China still did not have access to improved sanitation. [ 484 ] The ongoing South–North Water Transfer Project intends to abate water dearth in the north. [ 485 ]


A 2009 population concentration map of the People ‘s Republic of China and Taiwan. The eastern coastal provinces are much more densely populated than the westerly home. The national census of 2010 recorded the population of the People ‘s Republic of China as approximately 1,370,536,875. About 16.60 % of the population were 14 years old or younger, 70.14 % were between 15 and 59 years old, and 13.26 % were over 60 years old. [ 486 ] The population emergence rate for 2013 is estimated to be 0.46 %. [ 487 ] China used to make up much of the world ‘s poor people ; now it makes up much of the world ‘s middle class. [ 488 ] Although a middle-income nation by westerly standards, China ‘s rapid growth has pulled hundreds of millions —800 million, to be more accurate [ 489 ] —of its people out of poverty since 1978. By 2013, less than 2 % of the taiwanese population lived below the international poverty pipeline of US $ 1.9 per day, down from 88 % in 1981. [ 347 ] From 2009 to 2018, the unemployment rate in China has averaged about 4 %. [ 490 ] Given concerns about population emergence, China implemented a two-child limit during the 1970s, and, in 1979, began to advocate for an evening stricter restrict of one child per family. Beginning in the mid-1980s, however, given the unpopularity of the nonindulgent limits, China began to allow some major exemptions, peculiarly in rural areas, resulting in what was actually a “ 1.5 ” -child policy from the mid-1980s to 2015 ( ethnic minorities were besides excuse from one child limits ). The next major relax of the policy was enacted in December 2013, allowing families to have two children if one parent is an only child. [ 491 ] In 2016, the one-child policy was replaced in favor of a two-child policy. [ 492 ] According to data from the 2020 census, China ‘s total fertility rate is 1.3, but some experts believe that after adjusting for the transeunt effects of the relaxation of restrictions, the country ‘s actual total richness pace is a moo as 1.1. [ 493 ] According to one group of scholars, one-child limits had little effect on population growth [ 494 ] or the size of the total population. [ 495 ] however, these scholars have been challenged. Their own counterfactual model of richness decline without such restrictions implies that China averted more than 500 million births between 1970 and 2015, a total which may reach one billion by 2060 given all the helpless descendants of births averted during the era of richness restrictions, with one-child restrictions accounting for the capital bulge of that reduction. [ 496 ] The policy, along with traditional preference for boys, may have contributed to an imbalance in the sex ratio at parentage. [ 497 ] [ 498 ] According to the 2010 census, the sex proportion at birth was 118.06 boys for every 100 girls, [ 499 ] which is beyond the normal range of around 105 boys for every 100 girls. [ 500 ] The 2010 census found that males accounted for 51.27 percentage of the full population. [ 499 ] however, China ‘s arouse proportion is more balance than it was in 1953, when males accounted for 51.82 percentage of the total population. [ 499 ]

heathen groups

Ethnolinguistic map of China China legally recognizes 56 distinct ethnic groups, who raw comprise the Zhonghua Minzu. The largest of these nationalities are the ethnic Chinese or “ Han ”, who constitute more than 90 % of the total population. [ 501 ] The Han Chinese – the global ‘s largest single ethnic group [ 502 ] – outnumber other cultural groups in every provincial-level division except Tibet and Xinjiang. [ 503 ] Ethnic minorities account for less than 10 % of the population of China, according to the 2010 census. [ 501 ] Compared with the 2000 population census, the Han population increased by 66,537,177 persons, or 5.74 %, while the population of the 55 home minorities combined increased by 7,362,627 persons, or 6.92 %. [ 501 ] The 2010 census recorded a total of 593,832 foreign nationals living in China. The largest such groups were from South Korea ( 120,750 ), the United States ( 71,493 ) and Japan ( 66,159 ). [ 504 ]


There are equally many as 292 living languages in China. [ 505 ] The languages most normally spoken belong to the Sinitic branch of the sino-tibetan linguistic process family, which contains Mandarin ( spoken by 70 % of the population ), [ 506 ] and other varieties of chinese lyric : Yue ( including Cantonese and Taishanese ), Wu ( including Shanghainese and Suzhounese ), Min ( including Fuzhounese, Hokkien and Teochew ), Xiang, Gan and Hakka. Languages of the Tibeto-Burman branch, including Tibetan, Qiang, Naxi and Yi, are spoken across the Tibetan and Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau. other cultural minority languages in southwest China include Zhuang, Thai, Dong and Sui of the Tai-Kadai family, Miao and Yao of the Hmong–Mien kin, and Wa of the Austroasiatic syndicate. Across northeastern and northwestern China, local ethnic groups speak Altaic languages including Manchu, Mongolian and several Turkic languages : Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Salar and Western Yugur. Korean is spoken natively along the molding with North Korea. Sarikoli, the lyric of Tajiks in western Xinjiang, is an indo-european language. min aborigines, including a small population on the mainland, talk austronesian languages. [ 507 ] Standard Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin based on the Beijing dialect, is the official national lyric of China and is used as a tongue franca in the country between people of different linguistic backgrounds. [ 508 ] [ 509 ] Mongolian, Uyghur, Tibetan, Zhuang and diverse early languages are besides regionally recognized throughout the area. [ 510 ] chinese characters have been used as the written script for the Sinitic languages for thousands of years. They allow speakers of mutually unintelligible chinese varieties to communicate with each other through writing. In 1956, the government introduced simplified characters, which have supplanted the older traditional characters in mainland China. chinese characters are romanized using the Pinyin arrangement. Tibetan uses an alphabet based on an indic script. Uyghur is most normally written in Persian rudiment -based Uyghur Arabic rudiment. The mongol script used in China and the Manchu script are both derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet. Zhuang uses both an official Latin rudiment script and a traditional taiwanese character script. [ citation needed ]


China has urbanized importantly in holocene decades. The percentage of the country ‘s population support in urban areas increased from 20 % in 1980 to over 60 % in 2019. [ 511 ] [ 512 ] [ 513 ] It is estimated that China ‘s urban population will reach one billion by 2030, potentially equivalent to one-eighth of the global population. [ 512 ] [ 513 ] China has over 160 cities with a population of over one million, [ 514 ] including the 19 megacities [ 515 ] [ 516 ] ( cities with a population of over 10 million ) of Chongqing, Shanghai, Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Tianjin, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Harbin, Shijiazhuang, Suzhou, Hangzhou, Xi’an, Zhengzhou, Baoding, Linyi, Changsha, Dongguan and Qingdao. [ 517 ] Shanghai is China ‘s most populous urban sphere [ 518 ] [ 519 ] while Chongqing is its largest city proper. [ 520 ] By 2025, it is estimated that the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants. [ 512 ] The figures in the table below are from the 2017 census, [ 521 ] and are entirely estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits ; a different rank exists when considering the total municipal populations ( which includes suburban and rural populations ). The large “ float populations “ of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult ; [ 522 ] the figures below include merely long-run residents. [ citation needed ]

  1. ^[524] population of Hong Kong as of 2018 calculate .
  2. ^Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan’an, Beibei, Changshou, Jiangjin, Hechuan, Yongchuan, Nanchuan, Qijiang, Dazu, Bishan, Tongliang, [525] Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are up to 15,076,600. The data of Chongqing in the list is the datum of “ Metropolitan Developed Economic Area ”, which contains two parts : “ City Proper ” and “ Metropolitan Area ”. The “ City proper ” are consist of 9 districts : Yuzhong Yubei, & Banan, has the urban population of 5,646,300 as of 2018. And the “ Metropolitan Area ” are consist of 12 districts : Fuling Tongnan, & Rongchang, has the urban population of 5,841,700.Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are astir to 15,076,600 .

department of education

Since 1986, compulsory department of education in China comprises primary and junior junior-grade school, which together last for nine years. [ 528 ] In 2019, about 89.5 percentage of students continued their department of education at a three-year aged junior-grade school. [ 529 ] The Gaokao, China ‘s national university entrance examination, is a prerequisite for entrance into most higher education institutions. In 2010, 27 percentage of secondary school graduates are enrolled in higher education. [ 530 ] [ better source needed ] This number increased importantly over the last years, reaching a tertiary educate registration of 58.42 percentage in 2020. [ 531 ] Vocational education is available to students at the secondary and tertiary level. [ 532 ] More than 10 million taiwanese students graduated from vocational colleges countrywide every year. [ 533 ] China has the largest education system in the world, with about 282 million students and 17.32 million full-time teachers in over 530,000 schools. [ 534 ] In February 2006, the government pledged to provide completely free nine-year education, including textbooks and fees. [ 535 ] Annual education investment went from less than US $ 50 billion in 2003 to more than US $ 817 billion in 2020. [ 536 ] [ 537 ] however, there remains an inequality in department of education spending. In 2010, the annual education expending per secondary school scholar in Beijing totalled ¥20,023, while in Guizhou, one of the poorest provinces in China, merely totalled ¥3,204. [ 538 ] spare compulsory education in China consists of primary coil educate and junior junior-grade school between the ages of 6 and 15. In 2020, the gradation registration proportion at compulsory education floor reached 95.2 percentage, exceeding average levels recorded in high-income countries, [ 534 ] and around 91.2 % of taiwanese have received secondary education. [ 532 ] China ‘s literacy pace has grown dramatically, from only 20 % in 1949 and 65.5 % in 1979. [ 539 ] to 96 % of the population over long time 15 in 2018. [ 540 ] In the same year, China ( Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang ) was ranked the highest in the populace in the Programme for International Student Assessment ranking for all three categories of Mathematics, Science and Reading. [ 541 ] China ranks first base in the all-time decoration count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 168 goal medals since its first engagement in 1985. [ 542 ] China besides ranks foremost in the all-time decoration count at the International Physics Olympiad, the International Chemistry Olympiad, and the International Olympiad in Informatics. [ 543 ] [ 544 ] [ 545 ] China had over 3,000 universities, with over 40 million students enrolled in mainland China. [ 546 ] [ 547 ] As of 2020, China had the earth ‘s second-highest number of lead universities. [ 548 ] [ 549 ] [ 550 ] Currently, China trails only the United States in terms of representation on lists of top 200 universities according to the Academic Ranking of World Universities ( ARWU ). [ 551 ] China is home to the two best universities ( Tsinghua University and Peking University ) in the wholly Asia – Oceania region and emerging countries according to the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. [ 552 ] [ 553 ] [ 554 ] Both are members of the C9 League, an alliance of elite chinese universities offering comprehensive and lead education. [ 555 ]


The National Health and Family Planning Commission, together with its counterparts in the local commissions, oversees the health needs of the chinese population. [ 556 ] An stress on populace health and preventive medicate has characterized chinese health policy since the early 1950s. At that time, the Communist Party started the Patriotic Health Campaign, which was aimed at improving sanitation and hygiene, deoxyadenosine monophosphate well as process and preventing several diseases. Diseases such as cholera, typhoid and scarlet fever, which were previously rife in China, were about eradicated by the campaign. [ citation needed ] After Deng Xiaoping began instituting economic reforms in 1978, the health of the chinese populace improved quickly because of better nutrition, although many of the release populace health services provided in the countryside disappeared along with the People ‘s Communes. Healthcare in China became by and large privatized, and experienced a significant advance in quality. In 2009, the government began a 3-year large-scale healthcare provision first step worth US $ 124 billion. [ 557 ] By 2011, the political campaign resulted in 95 % of China ‘s population having basic health policy coverage. [ 558 ] In 2011, China was estimated to be the populace ‘s third-largest supplier of pharmaceuticals, but its population has suffered from the development and distribution of counterfeit medications. [ 559 ] As of 2017, the average life anticipation at birth in China is 76 years, [ 560 ] and the baby deathrate rate is 7 per thousand. [ 561 ] Both have improved importantly since the 1950s. [ vanadium ] Rates of stunt, a condition caused by malnutrition, have declined from 33.1 % in 1990 to 9.9 % in 2010. [ 564 ] Despite meaning improvements in health and the construction of promote aesculapian facilities, China has several emerging public health problems, such as respiratory illnesses caused by widespread air contamination, [ 565 ] hundreds of millions of cigarette smokers, [ 566 ] and an addition in fleshiness among urban youths. [ 567 ] [ 568 ] China ‘s boastfully population and dumbly populate cities have led to serious disease outbreaks in recent years, such as the 2003 outbreak of SARS, although this has since been largely contained. [ 569 ] In 2010, breeze contamination caused 1.2 million premature deaths in China. [ 570 ] The COVID-19 pandemic was first base identified in Wuhan in December 2019. [ 571 ] [ 572 ] Further studies are being carried out around the world on a possible origin for the virus. [ 573 ] [ 574 ] The chinese government has been criticized for its wield of the epidemic and accused of concealing the extent of the outbreak before it became an external pandemic. [ 575 ]


The government of the People ‘s Republic of China officially espouses state atheism, [ 580 ] and has conducted antireligious campaigns to this end. [ 581 ] Religious affairs and issues in the area are overseen by the State Administration for Religious Affairs. [ 582 ] Freedom of religion is guaranteed by China ‘s fundamental law, although religious organizations that lack official approval can be national to country persecution. [ 273 ] [ 583 ] Over the millennium, chinese culture has been influenced by versatile religious movements. The “ three teachings “, including Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism ( chinese Buddhism ), historically have a meaning function in shaping chinese culture, [ 584 ] [ 585 ] enriching a theological and spiritual framework which harks back to the early Shang and Zhou dynasty. taiwanese popular or tribe religion, which is framed by the three teachings and other traditions, [ 586 ] consists in allegiance to the shen ( 神 ), a character that signifies the “ energies of genesis “, who can be deities of the environment or ancestral principles of human groups, concepts of politeness, acculturation heroes, many of whom feature in Chinese mythology and history. [ 587 ] Among the most popular cults are those of Mazu ( goddess of the seas ), [ 588 ] Huangdi ( one of the two divine patriarch of the Chinese race ), [ 588 ] [ 589 ] Guandi ( god of war and business ), Caishen ( god of prosperity and richness ), Pangu and many others. China is home to many of the world ‘s tallest religious statues, including the tallest of all, the bounce Temple Buddha in Henan. [ citation needed ] clear data on religious affiliation in China is difficult to gather due to varying definitions of “ religion ” and the unorganized, diffusing nature of Chinese religious traditions. Scholars note that in China there is no clear boundary between three teachings religions and local folk religious exercise. [ 584 ] A 2015 poll conducted by Gallup International found that 61 % of chinese people self-identified as “ convinced atheist ”, [ 590 ] though it is worthwhile to note that chinese religions or some of their strands are definable as non-theistic and human-centered religions, since they do not believe that divine creativity is completely transcendent, but it is implicit in in the world and in particular in the human being. [ 591 ] According to a 2014 study, approximately 74 % are either non-religious or commit taiwanese tribe belief, 16 % are Buddhists, 2 % are Christians, 1 % are Muslims, and 8 % adhere to early religions including Taoists and tribe salvationism. [ 592 ] [ 593 ] In addition to Han people ‘s local anesthetic religious practices, there are besides versatile ethnic minority groups in China who maintain their traditional autochthone religions. The assorted folk music religions nowadays comprise 2–3 % of the population, while Confucianism as a religious self-identification is common within the intellectual class. meaning faiths specifically connected to certain heathen groups include Tibetan Buddhism and the Islamic religion of the Hui, Uyghur, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and other peoples in Northwest China. [ citation needed ] The 2010 population census reported the sum count of Muslims in the state as 23.14 million. [ 594 ] A 2021 poll from Ipsos and the Policy Institute at King ‘s College London found that 35 % of chinese people said there was tension between different religious groups, which was the second lowest share of the 28 countries surveyed. [ 595 ] [ 596 ]


Fenghuang County, an ancient town that harbors many architectural remains of Ming and Qing styles. Since ancient times, chinese polish has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. For much of the area ‘s dynastic earned run average, opportunities for social progress could be provided by high performance in the prestigious imperial examinations, which have their origins in the Han dynasty. [ 598 ] The literary emphasis of the exams affected the general perception of cultural polish in China, such as the belief that calligraphy, poetry and paint were higher forms of art than dancing or drama. taiwanese acculturation has long emphasized a smell of deep history and a largely inward-looking national perspective. [ 599 ] Examinations and a culture of deserve remain greatly valued in China nowadays. [ 600 ]
The first leaders of the People ‘s Republic of China were born into the traditional imperial ordain but were influenced by the May Fourth Movement and progressive ideals. They sought to change some traditional aspects of chinese culture, such as rural nation tenure, sexism, and the confucian system of education, while preserving others, such as the family structure and polish of obedience to the state. Some observers see the time period following the establishment of the PRC in 1949 as a good continuation of traditional chinese dynastic history, while others claim that the Communist Party ‘s rule has damaged the foundations of chinese culture, specially through political movements such as the Cultural Revolution of the 1960s, where many aspects of traditional culture were destroyed, having been denounced as “ regressive and harmful ” or “ vestiges of feudalism “. many crucial aspects of traditional chinese morals and acculturation, such as Confucianism, art, literature, and performing arts like Peking opera, [ 601 ] were altered to conform to government policies and propaganda at the time. Access to alien media remains heavily restricted. [ 602 ] nowadays, the chinese government has accepted numerous elements of traditional chinese culture as being integral to chinese club. With the rise of taiwanese patriotism and the end of the Cultural Revolution, assorted forms of traditional chinese art, literature, music, film, fashion and architecture have seen a vigorous revival, [ 603 ] [ 604 ] and folk music and variety artwork in particular have sparked concern nationally and even worldwide. [ 605 ] A pate in October 2020 [ 606 ] of respondents in Spain, [ 607 ] Slovakia, [ 608 ] Latvia, [ 609 ] Serbia, [ 610 ] and Russia [ 611 ] found that majorities in those countries considered China to be “ culturally attractive ” .

tourism in China

China received 55.7 million inbound international visitors in 2010, [ 612 ] and in 2012 was the third-most-visited country in the world. [ 613 ] It besides experiences an enormous volume of domestic tourism ; an estimated 740 million chinese holidaymakers traveled within the country in October 2012. [ 614 ] China hosts the earth ‘s second-largest number of World Heritage Sites ( 56 ) after Italy, and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world ( first in the Asia-Pacific ). It is forecast by Euromonitor International that China will become the world ‘s most popular finish for tourists by 2030. [ 615 ]


taiwanese literature is based on the literature of the Zhou dynasty. [ 616 ] Concepts covered within the chinese classic textbook present a across-the-board compass of thoughts and subjects including calendar, military, astrology, herbology, geography and many others. [ 617 ] Some of the most important early text include the I Ching and the Shujing within the Four Books and Five Classics which served as the Confucian authoritative books for the state-sponsored course of study in dynastic era. [ 618 ] Inherited from the Classic of Poetry, classical music Chinese poetry developed to its floruit during the Tang dynasty. Li Bai and Du Fu opened the furcation ways for the poetic circles through romanticism and reality respectively. [ 619 ] Chinese historiography began with the Shiji, the overall scope of the historiographical custom in China is termed the twenty-four Histories, which set a huge stage for chinese fictions along with chinese mythology and folklore. [ 620 ] Pushed by a burgeoning citizen class in the Ming dynasty, chinese classical fabrication rose to a boom of the historical, township and gods and demons fictions as represented by the Four Great Classical Novels which include Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West and Dream of the Red Chamber. [ 621 ] Along with the wuxia fictions of Jin Yong and Liang Yusheng, [ 622 ] it remains an enduring generator of popular culture in the East asian cultural sphere. [ 623 ] In the wake of the New Culture Movement after the end of the Qing dynasty, chinese literature embarked on a new era with written slang Chinese for ordinary citizens. Hu Shih and Lu Xun were pioneers in modern literature. [ 624 ] Various literary genres, such as misty poetry, scar literature, young pornographic fabrication and the xungen literature, which is influenced by magic naturalism, [ 625 ] emerged following the cultural Revolution. Mo Yan, a xungen literature author, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2012. [ 626 ]


Map showing major regional cuisines of China chinese cuisine is highly diverse, drawing on respective millennium of culinary history and geographic assortment, in which the most influential are known as the “ Eight Major Cuisines ”, including Sichuan, Cantonese, Jiangsu, Shandong, Fujian, Hunan, Anhui, and Zhejiang cuisines. [ 627 ] All of them are featured by the accurate skills of shape, heat, and flavoring. [ 628 ] [ better source needed ] Chinese cuisine is besides known for its width of cooking methods and ingredients, [ 629 ] a well as food therapy that is emphasized by traditional chinese medicine. [ 630 ] [ better source needed ] Generally, China ‘s staple food is rice in the south, wheat-based breads and noodles in the north. The diet of the common people in pre-modern times was largely grain and simple vegetables, with meat reserved for special occasions. The bean products, such as bean curd and soy sauce milk, remain as a popular source of protein. [ 631 ] Pork is now the most popular kernel in China, accounting for about three-fourths of the country ‘s total kernel consumption. [ 632 ] While pork barrel dominates the kernel market, there is besides the vegetarian Buddhist cuisine and the pork-free chinese Islamic cuisine. southerly cuisine, ascribable to the area ‘s proximity to the ocean and balmy climate, has a wide variety of seafood and vegetables ; it differs in many respects from the wheat-based diets across dry northerly China. numerous offshoots of chinese food, such as Hong Kong cuisine and American Chinese food, have emerged in the nations that play horde to the chinese diaspora. [ citation needed ]


chinese music covers a highly divers range of music from traditional music to modern music. chinese music dates back before the pre-imperial times. traditional taiwanese musical instruments were traditionally grouped into eight categories known as bayin ( 八音 ). traditional chinese opera is a form of musical theater in China originating thousands of years and has regional style forms such as Beijing opera and yue opera. [ 633 ] taiwanese pop ( C-Pop ) includes mandopop and cantopop. chinese knock, taiwanese hip hop and Hong Kong hip hop have become popular in contemporaneous times. [ 634 ]


Cinema was beginning introduced to China in 1896 and the first base Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was released in 1905. [ 635 ] China has the largest issue of movie screens in the global since 2016, [ 636 ] China became the largest film commercialize in the world in 2020. [ 637 ] [ 638 ] The top 3 highest-grossing films in China presently are Wolf Warrior 2 ( 2017 ) , Ne Zha ( 2019 ), and The Wandering Earth ( 2019 ). [ 639 ]


Hanfu is the historical clothing of the Han people in China. The qipao or cheongsam is a democratic chinese female dress. [ 640 ] The hanfu motion has been popular in contemporary times and seeks to revitalize Hanfu dress. [ 641 ]


China has one of the oldest clean cultures in the global. There is evidence that archery ( shèjiàn ) was practiced during the westerly Zhou dynasty. Swordplay ( jiànshù ) and cuju, a sport loosely related to association football [ 642 ] date back to China ‘s early on dynasties as well. [ 643 ]
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent and was invented in China more than 2,500 years ago. physical seaworthiness is wide emphasized in taiwanese culture, with dawn exercises such as qigong and t’ai qi ch’uan widely practiced, [ 644 ] and commercial gymnasium and private fitness clubs are gaining popularity across the area. [ 645 ] Basketball is presently the most popular spectator pump sport in China. [ 646 ] The Chinese Basketball Association and the american english National Basketball Association have a huge follow among the people, with native or ethnic chinese players such as Yao Ming and Yi Jianlian held in high esteem. [ 647 ] China ‘s professional football league, now known as taiwanese Super League, was established in 1994, it is the largest football grocery store in Asia. [ 648 ] other democratic sports in the country include warlike arts, postpone tennis, badminton, naiant and snooker. Board games such as go ( known as wéiqí in Chinese ), xiangqi, mah-jongg, and more recently chess, are besides played at a professional level. [ 649 ] In addition, China is home to a huge number of cyclists, with an estimated 470 million bicycles as of 2012. [ 470 ] Many more traditional sports, such as dragon boat race, Mongolian-style wrestle and cavalry race are besides democratic. [ 650 ] China has participated in the Olympic Games since 1932, although it has only participated as the PRC since 1952. China hosted the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, where its athletes received 48 amber medals – the highest total of gold medals of any participating nation that year. [ 651 ] China besides won the most medals of any nation at the 2012 Summer Paralympics, with 231 overall, including 95 gold medals. [ 652 ] [ 653 ] In 2011, Shenzhen in Guangdong, China hosted the 2011 Summer Universiade. China hosted the 2013 East asian Games in Tianjin and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics in Nanjing ; the first base state to host both regular and Youth Olympics. Beijing and its nearby city Zhangjiakou of Hebei province collaboratively hosted the 2022 Olympic Winter Games, making Beijing the first dual olympic city in the worldly concern by holding both the Summer Olympics and the Winter Olympics. [ 654 ] [ 655 ]

See besides



far read

For a more comprehensive list, see Bibliography of Chinese history


General information


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