Nestlé – Wikipedia

swiss multinational food party
“ Nestle ” redirects here. For other uses, see Nestle ( disambiguation )
Nestlé S.A. ( ; [ citation needed ] French : [ nɛsle ] ) is a swiss multinational food and drink in process accumulate pot headquartered in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland. It is the largest publicly held food caller in the world, measured by gross and other metrics, since 2014. [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] It ranked No. 64 on the Fortune Global 500 in 2017 [ 9 ] and No. 33 in the 2016 edition of the Forbes Global 2000 list of largest public companies. [ 10 ]

Nestlé ‘s products include pamper food ( some including human milk oligosaccharides ), checkup food, bottled water, breakfast cereals, chocolate and tea, confectionery, dairy products, internal-combustion engine cream, fixed food, positron emission tomography foods, and snacks. twenty-nine of Nestlé ‘s brands have annual sales of over 1 billion CHF ( about US $ 1.1 billion ), [ 11 ] including Nespresso, Nescafé, Kit Kat, Smarties, Nesquik, Stouffer ‘s, Vittel, and Maggi. Nestlé has 447 factories, operates in 189 countries, and employs approximately 339,000 people. [ 12 ] It is one of the main shareholders of L’Oreal, the universe ‘s largest cosmetics ship’s company. [ 13 ] Nestlé was formed in 1905 by the amalgamation of the “ Anglo-Swiss milk Company ”, established in 1866 by brothers George and Charles Page, and “ Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé ”, founded in 1867 by Henri Nestlé. [ 14 ] The party grew significantly during the First World War and again following the second World War, expanding its offerings beyond its early condensed milk and baby rule products. The company has made a number of corporate acquisitions, including Crosse & Blackwell in 1950, Findus in 1963, Libby ‘s in 1971, Rowntree Mackintosh in 1988, Klim in 1998, and Gerber in 2007. The caller has been associated with respective controversies, facing criticism and boycott over its marketing of baby convention as an alternative to breastfeeding in developing countries ( where clean water may be scarce ), its reliance on child labor in cocoa production, and its production and promotion of bottle water .


1866–1900 : initiation and early years

Nestlé ‘s lineage dates back to the 1860s, when two distinguish swiss enterprises were founded that would former form Nestlé. In the follow decades, the two competing enterprises expanded their businesses throughout Europe and the United States. [ 15 ]


1901–1989 : Mergers

In 1904, François-Louis Cailler, Charles Amédée Kohler, Daniel Peter, and Henri Nestlé participated in the creation and development of swiss chocolate, marketing the beginning cocoa – milk Nestlé. [ 19 ] In 1905, the companies merged to become the Nestlé and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company, retaining that mention until 1947 when the list ‘Nestlé Alimentana SA ‘ was taken as a result of the acquisition of Fabrique de Produits Maggi SA ( establish 1884 ) and its holding company, Alimentana SA, of Kempttal, Switzerland. The company ‘s current name was adopted in 1977. By the early 1900s, the caller was operating factories in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Spain. [ 20 ] The First World War created demand for dairy products in the form of government contracts, and, by the end of the war, Nestlé ‘s output had more than doubled .
A 1915 ad for “ Nestlés Food ”, an early baby formula Certificate for 100 shares of the Nestlé and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Co., issued 1. November 1918 In January 1919, Nestlé bought two condense milk plants in oregon from the company Geibisch and Joplin for $ 250,000. One was in Bandon, while the other was in Milwaukie. They expanded them well, processing 250,000 pounds of condense milk daily in the Bandon implant. [ 21 ]
Aleppo Nestlé build up Tilal street 1920s After the World War I, government contracts dried up, and consumers switched back to fresh milk. however, Nestlé ‘s management responded promptly, streamlining operations and reducing debt. The 1920s saw Nestlé ‘s first expansion into newly products, with chocolate-manufacture becoming the party ‘s moment most significant natural process. Louis Dapples was CEO cashbox 1937 when succeeded by Édouard Muller till his death in 1948. Nestlé felt the effects of the Second World War immediately. Profits dropped from US $ 20 million in 1938 to US $ 6 million in 1939. [ citation needed ] Factories were established in developing countries, particularly in South America. [ 22 ] Ironically, the war helped with the introduction of the party ‘s newest product, Nescafé ( “ Nestlé ‘s Coffee ” ), which became a staple beverage of the US military. Nestlé ‘s production and sales rose in the wartime economy. [ 22 ]
[23] The logo that Nestlé used from 1938 to 1966 The end of World War II was the beginning of a moral force phase for Nestlé. Growth accelerated and numerous companies were acquired. In 1947 Nestlé merged with Maggi, a manufacturer of seasonings and soups. Crosse & Blackwell followed in 1950, as did Findus ( 1963 ), Libby ‘s ( 1971 ), and Stouffer ‘s ( 1973 ). [ 24 ] Diversification came under Chairman & CEO Pierre Liotard-Vogt with a shareholding in L’Oreal in 1974 and the learning of Alcon Laboratories Inc. in 1977 for $ 280 million. [ 24 ] In the 1980s, Nestlé ‘s improved bottom line allowed the company to launch far acquisitions. carnation was acquired for US $ 3 billion in 1984 and brought the evaporated milk mark, arsenic well as Coffee-Mate and Friskies to Nestlé. In 1986, the company founded Nestlé Nespresso S.A. The british confectionery company Rowntree Mackintosh was acquired in 1988 for $ 4.5 billion, which brought brands such as Kit Kat, Rolo, Smarties, and Aero. [ 25 ]

1990–2011 : Growth internationally

The first one-half of the 1990s proved to be favorable for Nestlé. Trade barriers crumbled, and world markets developed into more or less integrated deal areas. Since 1996, there have been diverse acquisitions, including San Pellegrino ( 1997 ), D’Onofrio ( 1997 ), Spillers Petfoods ( 1998 ), and Ralston Purina ( 2002 ). There were two major acquisitions in North America, both in 2002 – in June, Nestlé merged its US ice cream business into Dreyer ‘s, and in August, a US $ 2.6 billion acquisition was announced of Chef America, the creator of Hot Pockets. In the lapp time-frame, Nestlé entered in a articulation wish with Cadbury and came close to purchasing the american company Hershey ‘s, one of its fiercest confectionery competitors, but the deal finally fell through. [ 26 ] In December 2005, Nestlé bought the Greek company Delta Ice Cream for €240 million. [ 27 ] In January 2006, it took full possession of Dreyer ‘s, frankincense becoming the world ‘s largest ice rink cream manufacturer, with a 17.5 % market partake. [ 28 ] In July 2007, completing a deal announced the year before, Nestlé acquired the Medical Nutrition division of Novartis Pharmaceutical for US $ 2.5 billionand besides acquiring the milk-flavoring product known as Ovaltine, the “ Boost ” and “ Resource ” lines of nutritional supplements, and Optifast diet products. [ 29 ]
In April 2007, returning to its roots, Nestlé bought US baby-food manufacturer Gerber for US $ 5.5 billion. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] [ 32 ] In December 2007, Nestlé entered into a strategic partnership with a belgian cocoa manufacturer, Pierre Marcolini. [ 33 ] Nestlé agreed to sell its controlling stake in Alcon to Novartis on 4 January 2010. The sale was to form part of a broader US $ 39.3 billion offer by Novartis for fully acquisition of the world ‘s largest eye-care company. [ 34 ] On 1 March 2010, Nestlé concluded the leverage of Kraft Foods ‘s north american frigid pizza business for US $ 3.7 billion. Since 2010, Nestlé has been working to transform itself into a nutriment, health and health party in an feat to combat declining confectionery sales and the threat of expanding government regulation of such foods. This feat is being led through the Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences under the steering of Ed Baetge. The establish aims to develop “ a new industry between food and pharmaceuticals ” by creating foodstuffs with preventive and corrective health properties that would replace pharmaceutical drugs from pill bottles. The Health Science branch has already produced several products, such as drinks and protein shakes meant to combat malnutrition, diabetes, digestive health, fleshiness, and early diseases. [ 35 ] In July 2011, Nestlé SA agreed to buy 60 percentage of Hsu Fu Chi International Ltd. for about US $ 1.7 billion. [ 36 ] On 23 April 2012, Nestlé agreed to acquire Pfizer Inc. ‘s infant-nutrition, once Wyeth Nutrition, unit of measurement for US $ 11.9 billion, topping a joint bid from Danone and Mead Johnson. [ 37 ] [ 38 ] [ 39 ]

2012–present : recent developments

In recent years, Nestlé Health Science has made respective acquisitions. It acquired Vitaflo, which makes clinical nutritional products for people with genetic disorders ; CM & D Pharma Ltd., a company that specialises in the development of products for patients with chronic conditions like kidney disease ; and Prometheus Laboratories, a firm specialising in treatments for gastrointestinal diseases and cancer. It besides holds a minority stake in Vital Foods, a New Zealand-based caller that develops kiwifruit -based solutions for gastrointestinal conditions as of 2012. [ 40 ] Another holocene leverage included the Jenny Craig weight-loss broadcast, for US $ 600 million. Nestlé sold the Jenny Craig commercial enterprise unit to North Castle Partners in 2013. [ 41 ] In February 2013, Nestlé Health Science bought Pamlab, which makes checkup foods based on L-methylfolate targeting depression, diabetes, and memory loss. [ 42 ] In February 2014, Nestlé sold its PowerBar sports nutrition business to Post Holdings, Inc. [ 43 ] Later, in November 2014, Nestlé announced that it was exploring strategic options for its freeze food subordinate, Davigel. [ 44 ] In December 2014, Nestlé announced that it was opening 10 bark worry research centres cosmopolitan, deepening its investment in a faster-growing grocery store for healthcare products. That class, Nestlé spent about $ 350 million on dermatology research and exploitation. The foremost of the inquiry hub, Nestlé Skin Health Investigation, Education and Longevity Development ( SHIELD ) centres, will open mid 2015 in New York, followed by Hong Kong and São Paulo, and late others in North America, Asia, and Europe. The inaugural is being launched in partnership with the Global Coalition on Aging ( GCOA ), a consortium that includes companies such as Intel and Bank of America. [ 45 ] In January 2017, Nestlé announced that it was relocating its US headquarter from Glendale, California, to Rosslyn, Virginia, outside of Washington, DC. [ 46 ] In March 2017, Nestlé announced that they will lower the sugar message in Kit Kat, Yorkie and Aero chocolate bars by 10 % by 2018. [ 47 ] In July, a similar announcement followed concerning the decrease of boodle message in its breakfast cereals in the UK. [ 48 ] The company announced a $ 20.8 billion parcel redemption in June 2017, following the publication of a letter written by Third Point Management founder Daniel S. Loeb, Nestlé ‘s fourth-largest stakeholder with a $ 3.5 billion interest, [ 49 ] explaining how the firm should change its business social organization. [ 50 ] consequently, the firm will reportedly focus investment on sectors such as coffee and pet care and will seek acquisitions in the consumer health-care industry. [ 50 ] In July 2017, Nestlé introduced a new type of baby rule in Spain, containing two homo milk oligosaccharides. [ 51 ] Oligosaccharides are the third gear most abundant components of front milk with versatile health benefits, but previously were not separate of baby rule. In September 2017, Nestlé S.A. acquired a majority venture of Blue Bottle. [ 52 ] While the softwood ‘s fiscal details were not disclosed, the Financial Times reported “ Nestlé is sympathize to be paying up to $ 500m for the 68 per penny venture in Blue Bottle ”. [ 53 ] Blue Bottle expects to increase sales by 70 % this year. [ 54 ] In September 2017, Nestlé USA agreed to acquire Sweet Earth, a California-based manufacturer of plant-based foods, for an undisclosed sum. [ 55 ] In January 2018, Nestlé USA announced it is selling its US confectionery business to Ferrara Candy Company, an italian chocolate and candy godhead. [ 56 ] The company was sold for a entire of an estimate $ 2.8 billion. [ 56 ] In May 2018, it was announced that Nestlé and Starbucks struck a $ 7.15 billion distribution cover, which allows Nestlé to market, sell and distribute Starbucks chocolate globally and to incorporate the stigmatize ‘s chocolate varieties into Nestlé ‘s proprietorship single-serve system, expanding the oversea markets for both companies. [ 57 ] Nestlé set a new profit target in September 2017 and agreed to offload over 20 of its US sugarcoat brands in January 2018. however, sales grew entirely 2.4 % in 2017, and as of July 2018, the share monetary value declined more than 8 %. While some suggestions were adopted, Loeb said in a July 2018 letter that the shifts are excessively small and besides dense. In a argument, Nestlé wrote that it was “ give birth results ” and listed actions it had taken, including investing in key brands and its global coffee partnership with Starbucks. however, militant investors disagreed, leading third base Point Management to launch NestleNOW, a web site to push its case with recommendations calling for change, accusing Nestlé of not being as fast, aggressive, or strategic as it needs to be. militant investors called for Nestlé to divide into three units with discrete CEOs, regional structures, and commercialize heads – beverage, nutrition, and grocery ; spin off more businesses that do not fit its model such as ice cream, freeze foods, and confectionery ; and add an foreigner with expertness in the food and beverage industry to the board. [ 58 ] [ 59 ] In September 2018, Nestlé announced that it would sell Gerber Life Insurance for $ 1.55 billion. [ 60 ] [ 61 ] In October 2018, Nestlé announced the launch of the Nestlé Alumni Network, through a strategic partnership with SAP & EnterpriseAlumni, to engage with their over 1 million Alumni globally. [ 62 ] In 2019, the company announced that it would publish Nutri-Score on all of its products sold in the european countries that supported the nutritional label. [ 63 ] In 2020, Nestlé wants to invest in plant-based food, starting with a “ tuna salad ” and meat-free products to engage and reach younger and vegan consumers. [ 64 ] On 16 February 2021, Nestlé announced that it had agreed to sell its body of water brands in the US and Canada to One Rock Capital Partners and Metropoulos & Co. The sale, expected to conclude in give, would include the give water and mountain brands, the purify water brand and the manner of speaking service. The plan did not include the Perrier, S.Pellegrino and Acqua Panna brands. [ 65 ] [ 66 ] In early April 2021, the sale was concluded. [ 67 ] The COVID-19 pandemic did not affect Nestlé negatively. due to lockdowns, people bought more box foods, not entirely coffee bean and dairy products, but besides favored products, which increased the company ‘s sales. Nestlé is recording its strongest quarterly sales growth in 10 years. [ 68 ] In April 2021, Nestlé agreed to purchase the vitamin manufacturing Bountiful Company, once known as The Nature ‘s Bounty Co., for $ 5.75 billion, noting equally well that much of the caller ‘s emergence that draw came from “ vitamins, minerals, and supplements that support health and the immune arrangement ”. The cope acquires respective assets from Bountiful, including nature ‘s Bounty, Solgar, Osteo Bi-Flex, and Puritan ‘s Pride. [ 69 ] [ 70 ] [ 71 ] In January 2022, Nestlé will pay cocoa farmers cash if they send their children to school. [ 72 ]

corporate affairs and government

capital ownership of Nestlé by nation of origin as of 2014. [ 73 ]


Switzerland ( 35.28 % )


United States ( 28.53 % )


All others ( 36.19 % )
Nestlé is the biggest food company in the populace, with a market capitalization of roughly 231 billion swiss francs, which is more than US $ 247 billion as of May 2015. [ 74 ] Nestlé has a basal list on the SIX Swiss Exchange and is a constituent of the swiss Market Index. It has a secondary list on Euronext. In 2014, consolidated sales were CHF 91.61 billion and net profit was CHF 14.46 billion. inquiry and development investment was CHF 1.63 billion. [ 75 ]

  • Sales per category in CHF[76][12]
    • 20.3 billion powdered and liquid beverages
    • 16.7 billion milk products and ice cream
    • 13.5 billion prepared dishes and cooking aids
    • 13.1 billion nutrition and health science
    • 11.3 billion pet care
    • 9.6 billion confectionery
    • 6.9 billion water
  • Percentage of sales by geographic area breakdown[76][12]
    • 43% from Americas
    • 28% from Europe
    • 29% from Asia, Oceania and Africa

According to a 2015 global survey of on-line consumers by the Reputation Institute, Nestlé has a repute score of 74.5 on a scale of 1–100. [ 77 ]

Financial data

Financial data in CHF billions[78]
Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Revenue 83.642 92.186 92.158 91.612 88.785 89.469 89.791 91.439 92.568 84.343
Net income 9.487 10.611 10.015 14.456 9.066 8.531 7.183 10.135 12.609 12.232
Assets 114.091 126.229 120.442 133.450 123.992 131.901 130.380 137.015 127.940 124.028
Employees 328,000 339,000 333,000 339,000 335,000 328,000 323,000 308,000 291,000 273,000

joint ventures

joint ventures include :

Board of Directors

As of 2017, the board is composed of : [ 85 ]


The company engages third gear party lobby firms to engage with parliaments and governments in assorted jurisdictions. For exemplar, in South Australia the company engages Etched Communications. [ 86 ] In the US, Nestlé has a strong influence in Washington, D.C. From 2015-2020 their average spend on lobby was $ 1,951,667 each year. [ 87 ]


Samples of Nestlé Toll House Cafe items in 2012 Nestlé presently has over 2,000 brands [ 88 ] [ 89 ] with a wide-eyed range of products across a number of markets, including chocolate, bottle water, milkshakes and other beverages, breakfast cereals, baby foods, operation and healthcare nutriment, seasonings, soups and sauces, frozen and refrigerate foods, and positron emission tomography food. [ 12 ] In 2019, the company entered the plant-based food production business with its Incredible and Awesome Burgers ( under the Garden Gourmet and Sweet Earth brands ). In 2020, Nestlé announced extra plant-based products including soy-based bratwurst and chorizo-like sausages. [ 90 ]

Food base hit

milk products and pamper food

In late September 2008, the Hong Kong government found melamine in a Chinese-made Nestlé milk product. Six infants died from kidney price, and a far 860 babies were hospitalised. [ 91 ] [ 92 ] The Dairy Farm milk was made by Nestlé ‘s division in the chinese coastal city Qingdao. [ 93 ] Nestlé affirmed that all its products were safe and were not made from milk adulterated with melamine. On 2 October 2008, the Taiwan Health ministry announced that six types of milk powders produced in China by Nestlé contained low-level traces of melamine, and were “ removed from the shelves ”. [ 94 ] As of 2013, Nestlé has implemented initiatives to prevent contaminant and utilizes what it calls a “ factory and farmers ” model that eliminates the jobber. Farmers bring milk immediately to a network of Nestlé-owned collection centers, where a computerize system samples, tests, and tags each batch of milk. To reduce far the gamble of contamination at the reference, the company provides farmers with continuous train and aid in cow excerpt, feed quality, repositing, and other areas. [ 95 ] In 2014, the company opened the Nestlé Food Safety Institute ( NFSI ) in Beijing that will help meet China ‘s growing demand for healthy and safe food, one of the circus tent three concerns among chinese consumers. The NFSI announced it would work close with authorities to help provide a scientific foundation garment for food-safety policies and standards, with defend to include early management of food-safety issues and collaboration with local universities, research institutes and government agencies on food-safety. [ 96 ] In an incident in 2015, weevils and fungus were found in Cerelac baby food. [ 97 ] [ 98 ] [ 99 ]

Cookie boodle

In June 2009, an outbreak of E. coli O157 : H7 was linked to Nestlé ‘s refrigerate cookie dough originating in a plant in Danville, Virginia. In the US, it caused nausea in more than 50 people in 30 states, one-half of whom want hospitalization. Following the outbreak, Nestlé voluntarily recalled 30,000 cases of the cookie dough. The cause was determined to be contaminated flour obtained from a crude material supplier. When operations resumed, the flour used was heat-treated to kill bacteria. [ 100 ]

Maggi noodles

In May 2015, Food Safety Regulators from the state of Uttar Pradesh, India, found that samples of Nestlé India ‘s Maggi noodles had up to 17 times more than the permissible safe total of contribute, in summation to monosodium glutamate. [ 101 ] [ 102 ] [ 103 ] due to this, on 3 June 2015, the New Delhi Government banned the sale of Maggi in New Delhi stores for 15 days. [ 104 ] Some of India ‘s biggest retailers, such as Future Group, Big Bazaar, Easyday, and Nilgiris, had imposed a countrywide banish on Maggi as of 3 June 2015. [ 105 ] On the same day, Nestlé India ‘s shares fell 11 % due to the incident. [ 106 ] On 4 June 2015, the Gujarat FD banned the sale of the noodles for 30 days after 27 out of 39 samples were detected with objectionable levels of metallic precede, among other things. [ 107 ] Nestlé ‘s contribution fell by 3 % on that day over concerns related to its safety standards. [ 108 ] On 5 June 2015, Food Safety and Standards Authority of India ( FSSAI ) orders banned all nine approved variants of Maggi instantaneous noodles from India, deeming them “ dangerous and hazardous ” for homo pulmonary tuberculosis, [ 109 ] and Nepal indefinitely banned Maggi over concerns about lead levels in the product. [ 110 ] besides on 5 June, the Food Standards Agency of the United Kingdom launched an probe to test levels of lead in Maggi. [ 111 ] Maggi noodles have been withdrawn in five african nations – Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda, and South Sudan – by a supermarket chain after a complaint by the Consumer Federation of Kenya, as a reaction to the ban in India. [ 112 ] As of August 2015, India ‘s politics made public that it was seeking damages of closely $ 100 million from Nestlé India for “ unfair trade practices ” following the June ban on Maggi noodles. [ 113 ] The 6.4 billion pakistani rupee ( approximately US $ 93 million ) suit was filed with the National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission ( NCDRC ), regarded as the country ‘s peak consumer court, but was settled on 13 August 2015. [ 114 ] The court ruled that the government ban on the Nestlé intersection was both “ arbitrary ” and had violated the “ principles of natural justice. ” [ 115 ] Although Nestlé was not ordered to pay the fine try in the politics ‘s suit, the court ruled that the Maggi attic producers must “ send five samples from each batch of Maggi [ noodles ] for testing to three labs and only if the jumper cable is found to be lower than permitted will they start manufacture and sale again. ” Although the tests have even to take place, Nestlé has already destroyed 400 million packets of Maggi products. [ 116 ] [ needs update ] In India, Maggi products were returned to the shelves in November 2015, [ 117 ] [ 118 ] accompanied by a Nestlé advertising campaign to win second consumer trust, featuring items such as [ 119 ] the Maggi anthem by Vir Das and Alien Chutney. [ 120 ] Nestlé resumed production of Maggi at all five plants in India on 30 November 2015. [ 121 ] [ 122 ] In the Philippines, localised versions of Maggi moment noodles were sold until 2011 when the merchandise group was recalled for suspected salmonella contamination. [ 123 ] [ 124 ] The product did not return to commercialize, while Nestle continues to sell flavorer products including the popular Maggi Magic Sarap. [ citation needed ]

Music and Entertainment

In 1993, plans were made to update and modernise the overall shade of Walt Disney ‘s EPCOT Center, including a major renovation of The Land pavilion. Kraft Foods withdrew its sponsorship on 26 September 1993, with Nestlé taking its place. Co-financed by Nestlé and the Walt Disney World Resort, a gradual renovation of the pavilion began on 27 September 1993. [ 125 ] In 2003, Nestlé renewed its sponsorship of The Land ; however, it was under agreement that Nestlé would oversee its own renovation to both the interior and outside of the pavilion. between 2004 and 2005, the pavilion underwent its second major renovation. Nestlé stopped sponsoring The Land in 2009. [ 126 ] On 5 August 2010, Nestlé and the Beijing Music Festival signed an agreement to extend by three years Nestlé ‘s sponsorship of this external music festival. Nestlé has been an prolong patronize of the Beijing Music Festival for 11 years since 2000. The new agreement will continue the partnership through 2013. [ 127 ] Nestlé has partnered the Salzburg Festival in Austria for 20 years. In 2011, Nestlé renewed its sponsorship of the Salzburg Festival until 2015. [ 128 ] together, they have created the “ Nestlé and Salzburg Festival Young Conductors Award ”, an enterprise that aims to discover young conductors globally and to contribute to the development of their careers. [ 129 ]


Nestlé ‘s sponsorship of the Tour de France began in 2001 and the agreement was extended in 2004, a move which demonstrated the company ‘s interest in the Tour. In July 2009, Nestlé Waters and the organisers of the Tour de France announced that their partnership will continue until 2013. The independent promotional benefits of this partnership will spread on four key brands from Nestlé ‘s product portfolio : Vittel, Powerbar, Nesquik, or Ricore. [ 130 ] On 27 January 2012, the International Association of Athletics Federations announced that Nestlé will be the chief presenter for the far development of IAAF ‘s Kids ‘ Athletics Programme, which is one of the biggest grassroots development programmes in the world of sports. The five-year sponsorship started in January 2012. [ 131 ] On 11 February 2016, Nestlé decided to withdraw its sponsorship of the IAAF ‘s Kids ‘ Athletics Programmes because of dope and corruption allegations against the IAAF. Nestlé followed suit after early big sponsors, including Adidas, besides stopped supporting the IAAF. [ 132 ] In 2014, Nestlé Waters sponsored the UK branch of the Tour de France through its Buxton Natural Mineral Water post. [ 133 ] In 2002, Nestlé announced it was main patron for the Great Britain Lionesses Women ‘s rugby league team for the team ‘s irregular enlistment of Australia with its Munchies product. [ 134 ] Nestlé supports the australian Institute of Sport ( AIS ) on a number of nutrition and fitness fronts, funding a Fellowship position in AIS Sports Nutrition ; nutriment activities in the AIS Dining Hall ; research activities ; and the development of education resources for use at the AIS and in the public sphere. [ 135 ]

Controversy and criticisms

Baby rule market

business about Nestlé ‘s “ aggressive marketing ” of their breast milk substitutes, particularly in less economically evolve countries ( LEDCs ), foremost arose in the 1970s. [ 136 ] Critics have accused Nestlé of discouraging mothers from breastfeeding and suggesting that their baby formula is healthier than breastfeed, despite there being no testify for this. [ citation needed ] This led to a boycott which was launched in 1977 in the United States and subsequently spread into Europe. [ 137 ] The boycott was officially suspended in the US in 1984, after Nestlé agreed to follow an international commercialize code endorsed by the World Health Organization ( WHO ), [ 137 ] [ 138 ] [ 139 ] but was relaunched in 1989. [ 140 ] As of 2011, the caller is included in the FTSE4Good Index designed to help enable ethical investment. [ 141 ] [ 142 ] [ 143 ] [ 144 ] however, the company allegedly repeated these same commercialize practices in developing countries like Pakistan in the 1990s. A Pakistani salesman named Syed Aamir Raza Hussain became a whistle blower against his former employer Nestlé. In 1999, two years after he left Nestlé, Hussain released a report in association with the non-profit organization, Baby Milk Action, in which he alleged that Nestlé was encouraging doctors to push its baby formula products over breastfeed. Nestlé has denied Raza ‘s allegations. [ 145 ] This story inspired the 2014 acclaimed indian movie Tigers by the Oscar award-winning Bosnian conductor Danis Tanović. In May 2011, nineteen Laos -based external NGOs, including Save the Children, Oxfam, CARE International, Plan International, and World Vision launched a boycott of Nestlé with an open letter. [ 146 ] Among early unethical practices, they criticised a failure to translate label and health information into local languages and accused the company of giving incentives to doctors and nurses to promote the practice of baby rule. [ 147 ] Nestlé denied the claims and responded by commissioning an audit, carried out by Bureau Veritas, which concluded that “ the requirements of the WHO Code and Lao PDR Decree are well embedded throughout the commercial enterprise ” but that they were violated by promotional materials “ in 4 % of the retail outlets visited ”. [ 148 ] Ernest W. Lefever and the Ethics and populace Policy Center were criticized for accepting a $ 25,000 contribution from Nestlé while the organization was in the process of developing a report investigating aesculapian wish in developing nations which was never published. It was alleged that this contribution affected the release of the composition and led to the author of the report submitting an article to Fortune cartridge holder praising the company ‘s stead. [ 149 ] Nestlé has been under investigation in China since 2011 over allegations that the company bribed hospital staff to obtain the medical records of patients and push its baby formula to increase sales. [ 150 ] This was found to be in violation of a 1995 chinese regulation that aims to secure the impartiality of checkup staff by banning hospitals and academician institutions from promoting instant formula to families. [ 151 ] As a consequence, six Nestlé employers were given prison sentences between one and six years. [ 150 ]

bondage and child parturiency

multiple reports have documented the far-flung use of child labor in cocoa production, ampere well as slavery and child traffic, throughout west african plantations, on which Nestlé and other major cocoa companies rely. [ 152 ] [ 153 ] [ 154 ] [ 155 ] [ 156 ] According to the 2010 documentary, The Dark Side of Chocolate, the children working are typically 12 to 15 years old. [ 157 ] The Fair Labor Association has criticised Nestlé for not carrying out proper checks. [ 158 ] In 2005, after the cocoa diligence had not met the Harkin–Engel Protocol deadline for certifying that the worst forms of child labor ( according to the International Labour Organization ‘s Convention 182 ) had been eliminated from cocoa production, the International Labor Rights Fund filed a lawsuit in 2005 under the Alien Tort Claims Act against Nestlé and others on behalf of three malian children. The suit alleged the children were trafficked to Ivory Coast, forced into bondage, and experienced frequent beatings on a cocoa plantation. [ 159 ] [ 160 ] In September 2010, the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California determined corporations can not be held liable for violations of international jurisprudence and dismissed the suit. The casing was appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals. [ 161 ] [ 162 ] The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals reversed the decision. [ 163 ] In 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear Nestlé ‘s attract of the Ninth Circuit ‘s decision. [ 164 ] A 2016 study published in Fortune magazine concluded that approximately 2.1 million children in respective west african countries “ still do the dangerous and physically taxing work of harvesting cocoa ”, noting that “ the average farmer in Ghana in the 2013–14 growing temper made fair 84¢ per day, and farmers in Ivory Coast a mere 50¢ [ … ] well below the World Bank ‘s fresh $ 1.90 per day standard for extreme point poverty ”. On efforts to reduce the emergence, erstwhile secretary general of the Alliance of Cocoa Producing Countries, Sona Ebai, commented “ Best-case scenario, we ‘re only doing 10 % of what ‘s needed. ” [ 165 ] In 2019, Nestlé announced that they could not guarantee that their chocolate products were free from child slave labor, as they could trace only 49 % of their buying back to the grow level. The Washington Post noted that the commitment taken in 2001 to eradicate such practices within four years had not been kept, neither at the due deadline of 2005, nor within the revised deadlines of 2008 and 2010, and that the consequence was not likely to be achieved for 2020 either. [ 166 ] In 2021, Nestlé was named in a class natural process lawsuit filed by eight erstwhile child slaves from Mali who alleged that the company aided and abetted their enslavement on cocoa plantations in Ivory Coast. The suit accused Nestlé ( along with Barry Callebaut, Cargill, Mars, Incorporated, Olam International, The Hershey Company, and Mondelez International ) of wittingly engaging in forced labor, and the plaintiffs sought damages for unjust enrichment, negligent supervision, and designed infliction of emotional distress. [ 167 ] [ 168 ]

Anti-union activities in Colombia

Nestlé has been involved in extensive union-busting action in Colombia since it first arrived there. According to a spokesman for Sinaltrainal, the colombian Foodworkers Union : “ Nestlé converts the factories into camps for the public security forces in decree to create terror in the community, destroy the one of the workers, and misinform the members of the marriage, with the goal of pitting them against the leaders and destroying the motion. ” [ 169 ]


Status of drinkable water

At the second gear World Water Forum in 2000, Nestlé and other corporations persuaded the World Water Council to change its statement therefore as to reduce access to drinking water from a “ veracious ” to a “ indigence ”. Nestlé continues to take control of aquifers and bottle their water for profit. [ 170 ] Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, president of Nestlé, later changed his statement, saying in a 2013 interview, “ I am the first gear one to say water is a human mighty. ” In that lapp interview, he claimed that it was the “ primary province of every government ” to provide 30 litres of water a day to citizens. [ 171 ]

plastic bottles

A coalition of environmental groups filed a complaint against Nestlé to the Advertising Standards of Canada after Nestlé took out full-page advertisements in October 2008 with messages claiming, “ Most water system bottles avoid landfill sites and are recycled ”, “ Nestlé Pure Life is a healthy, eco-friendly choice ”, and, “ bottle urine is the most environmentally responsible consumer product in the world. ” [ 172 ] [ 173 ] [ 174 ] A spokesperson from one of the environmental groups stated : “ For Nestlé to claim that its bottle water product is environmentally lake superior to any early consumer product in the world is not bearable. ” [ 172 ] In their 2008 Corporate Citizenship Report, Nestlé themselves stated that many of their bottles end up in the solid-waste stream, and that most of their bottles are not recycled. [ 173 ] [ 175 ] The advertising political campaign has been called greenwashing. [ 173 ] [ 174 ] [ 175 ] Nestlé defended its ads, saying that they will show they have been truthful in their campaign. [ 172 ]

Water bottling operations in California, Oregon and Michigan

considerable controversy has surrounded Nestlé ‘s bottle water trade name, Arrowhead, sourced from wells alongside a spring in Millard Canyon situated in a native american booking at the free-base of the San Bernardino Mountains in California. While corporate officials and representatives of the governing Morongo tribe have asserted that the company, which started its operations in 2000, is providing meaningful jobs in the area and that the spring is sustaining current open water flows, a numeral of local anesthetic citizen groups and environmental carry through committees have started to question the sum of water system draw in the faint of the ongoing drought, and the restrictions that have been placed on residential water habit. [ 176 ] Additionally, holocene tell suggests that representatives of the Forest Service failed to follow through on a review serve for Nestlé ‘s let to draw water from the San Bernardino wells, which expired in 1988. [ 177 ] [ 178 ] In San Bernardino Nestlé pays the US Forest Service $ 524 annual to pump and bottle about 30 million gallons, even during droughts. Peter Gleick, a co-founder of the Pacific Institute, which researches freshwater issues, remarked “ Every gallon of water that is taken out of a natural system for bottle water is a gallon of urine that does n’t flow down a current, that does n’t support a natural ecosystem. ” He besides said, “ Our public agencies have dropped the ball ”. [ 179 ] The former forest supervisory program Gene Zimmerman has explained that the follow-up summons was rigorous, and that the Forest Service “ did n’t have the money or the budget or the staff ” to follow through on the review of Nestlé ‘s long-expired license. [ 180 ] however, Zimmerman ‘s observations and action have come under scrutiny for a number of reasons. first, along with the natural resource coach for Nestlé, Larry Lawrence, Zimmerman is a board penis for and played a full of life character in the initiation of the nonprofit organization Southern California Mountains Foundation, of which Nestlé is the most noteworthy and longtime donor. [ 181 ] second, the Zimmerman Community Partnership Award – an award inspired by Zimmerman ‘s actions and efforts “ to create a public/private partnership for resource growth and community battle ” – was presented by the basis to Nestlé ‘s Arrowhead Water division in 2013. [ 182 ] Finally, while Zimmerman retired from his former role in 2005, he presently works as a paid adviser for Nestlé, leading many fact-finding journalists to question Zimmerman ‘s allegiances prior to his retirement from the Forest Service. [ 180 ] In April 2015, the city of Cascade Locks, Oregon, and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, which is using water for a salmon hatchery, applied with the Oregon Water Resources Department to permanently trade their water rights to Nestlé ; an natural process which does not require a public-interest follow-up. Nestlé approached them in 2008 and they had been considering to trade their well water with Oregon ‘s Oxbow Springs water, a publicly owned water source in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area, and to sell the jump water at over 100 million gallons of water per year to Nestlé. The design has been criticized by legislators and 80,000 citizens. [ 183 ] The 250,000-square-foot, $ 50 million Nestlé bottle implant in Cascade Locks with an unemployment rate of 18.8 percentage would have 50 employees and would increase property-tax collections by 67 percentage. [ 184 ] In May 2016, voters of Hood River County voted 69 percentage to 31 percentage for the ballot quantify to ban boastfully bottling operations in the area, but in Cascade Locks, the one precinct in Hood River County, voters decided against the ballot measure, 58 percentage to 42 percentage. As a consequence, the Cascade Locks city council voted 5-to-1 to keep up the fight. soon after, Governor Kate Brown directed department of state officials to stop an substitution of water rights that was crucial to the deal, citing fiscal rather than environmental reasons. Nestlé then acknowledged that the central “ will not be going forward ”, marking a definite end to the planned bottle mathematical process. [ 185 ] Although a 2005 woo settlement gave Nestlé the correctly to pump 250 gallons per minute ( GPM ) from a well in unincorporated Osceola Township, Osceola County, Michigan, Nestlé has tried to increase that rate to 400 GPM. Its bottle urine is sold under the Ice Mountain Spring label. The local design commission denied the application to build a supporter station to increase the capacity of the pipeline that delivers water to a water hand truck depot some distance from the township. local citizens mounted considerable grassroots opposition to the design, with 55 opponents testifying against the proposal at a meet attended by about 500 people in July 2017. The litigation has been costly to the little town, which receives its only compensation from a $ 200 annual pumping fee. Regarding the 1976 Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act, part 17, a bill precipitated by Nestlé ‘s previous demands, Bill Cobbs, a current democratic gubernatorial campaigner said, “ This is incorrectly — when this act was written in 1976 it was never intentioned that water would be up for sale. ” [ 186 ] [ 187 ] The “ David vs. Goliath ” situation is drawing increasing national attention. [ 188 ] [ 189 ] Nestlé approaches water strictly as a commodity. In 1994 Helmut Maucher, Nestlé ‘s CEO commented, “ Springs are like petroleum. You can always build a cocoa factory. But springs you have or you do n’t have. ” His successor, Peter Brabeck-Letmathe, was criticized when, in a 2005 objective, he similarly promoted and rationalized the commodification of water, saying : “ One perspective held by diverse NGOs—which I would call extreme—is that water should be declared a human right. ” [ 179 ] In April 2021, and after many water rights complaints and on-line petitions against Nestlé, California ‘s Water Resources Control Board told the company that it has to stop unauthorized natural jump water diversions in the San Bernardino Forest. [ 190 ]

Chocolate price pay back

In Canada, the Competition Bureau raided the offices of Nestlé Canada ( along with those of Hershey Canada and Mars Canada ) in 2007 to investigate the matter of price situate of chocolates. It is alleged that executives with Nestlé ( the maker of KitKat, Coffee Crisp, and Big Turk ) colluded with competitors in Canada to inflate prices. [ 191 ] The Bureau alleged that competitors ‘ executives met in restaurants, coffee shops, and at conventions, and that Nestlé Canada CEO, Robert Leonidas, once handed a rival an envelope containing his company ‘s pricing information, saying : “ I want you to hear it from the top – I take my price seriously. ” [ 191 ] Nestlé and the other companies were subject to class-action lawsuits for price fastener after the raids were made public in 2007. Nestlé settled for $ 9 million, without admitting liability, subject to woo approval in the newly year. A massive class-action lawsuit continues in the United States. [ 191 ]

ethiopian debt refund

In 2002, Nestlé demanded that the nation of Ethiopia repay US $ 6 million of debt to the company at a time when Ethiopia was suffering a austere dearth. Nestlé backed gloomy from its demand after more than 8,500 people complained via e-mail to the caller about its treatment of the ethiopian government. The company agreed to re-invest any money it received from Ethiopia spinal column into the country. [ 192 ] In 2003, Nestlé agreed to accept an propose of US $ 1.5 million, and donated the money to three active charities in Ethiopia : the Red Cross, Caritas, and UNHCR. [ 193 ]

Russian-Ukrainian conflict

In August 2015, the ukrainian television receiver channel Ukrayina refused to hire a worker of the weekly cartridge holder Krayina, Alla Zheliznyak, as a host of a cook display because she speaks ukrainian. The demand to entirely hire a russian-speaking host was allegedly set by a sponsor of the show – Nesquik, which is a brand of Nestlé S.A. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] Activists of the Vidsich civil bowel movement held a rally near the position of the company in Kyiv, accusing Nestlé of discriminating against people who speak ukrainian and supporting the Russification of Ukraine. [ 196 ] They besides criticised goods sold in Ukraine being manufactured in Russia and threatened a boycott. Following the 2022 russian invasion of Ukraine which began on February 24, many international, peculiarly western companies pulled knocked out of Russia. Unlike most of its western competitors, Nestlé was dense to announce any disinvestments or scaling back of its operations in Russia, drawing criticism. [ 197 ] [ 198 ] Nestlé employs 7000 workers in Russia and stated they intend to protect them. [ 199 ] [ 200 ] Ukraine president Volodymyr Zelensky pleaded for a stop of business activities that help finance the Ukraine invasion. [ 201 ] Nestle suspended cargo of non-essential items but continued to produce substantive food items in Russia. The caller said that “ our activities in Russia will focus on providing essential food, such as baby food and medical/hospital nutrition ”. [ 202 ]

Forced labor in Thai fishing diligence

At the termination of a year-long self-imposed investigation in November 2015, Nestlé disclosed that seafood products sourced in Thailand were produced with coerce labor. [ 203 ] Nestlé is not a major buyer of seafood in Southeast Asia, but does some commercial enterprise in Thailand – primarily for its Purina cat food. The study found virtually all US and european companies buying seafood from Thailand are exposed to the like risks of abuse in their supply chains. [ 204 ] This type of disclosure was a surprise to many in the diligence because international companies rarely acknowledge abuses in supply chains. [ 205 ] Nestlé was expected to launch a year-long program in 2016 focused on protecting workers across its issue chain. The party has promised to impose new requirements on all likely suppliers, train gravy boat owners and captains about human rights, [ 204 ] and rent auditors to check for submission with fresh rules. [ 206 ]


In September 2017, an probe [ 207 ] conducted by NGO Mighty Earth found that a big sum of the cocoa used in chocolate produced by Nestlé and other major chocolate companies was grown illegally in national parks and other protect areas in Ivory Coast and Ghana. [ 208 ] [ 209 ] [ 210 ] The countries are the earth ‘s two largest cocoa producers. [ 211 ] [ 212 ] The report documents how in several national parks and other protect areas, 90 % or more of the country mass has been converted to cocoa. [ 213 ] Less than four percentage of Ivory Coast remains dumbly forested, and the chocolate companies ‘ individualistic overture to sourcing has driven across-the-board deforestation in Ghana ampere well. [ 214 ] In Ivory Coast, deforestation has pushed chimpanzees into precisely a few little pockets, and reduced the country ‘s elephant population from several hundred thousand to about 200–400. [ 215 ] [ 216 ] [ 217 ]

corporate social responsibility program involvements

Nestlé efforts relating to sociable responsibility programs include :

  • World Cocoa Foundation: In 2000, Nestlé and other chocolate companies formed the World Cocoa Foundation (WCF). The WCF is an international membership organization representing more than 100 member companies across the cocoa value chain. Its goal is to form a sustainable cocoa economy by prioritizing farmers, promoting agricultural and environmental stewardship, and strengthening development in cocoa-growing communities.[218]
  • Sustainable Agriculture Initiative: In 2002, Nestlé, Unilever, and Danone created the Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) Platform, a non-profit organization for sharing knowledge and initiatives for the development and implementation of sustainable agriculture practices involving the different stakeholders of the food chain. The SAI Platform has more than 60 members, which actively share the same view on sustainable agriculture seen as “the efficient production of safe, high-quality agricultural products, in a way that protects and improves the natural environment, the social and economic conditions of farmers, their employees and local communities, and safeguards the health and welfare of all farmed species.” The SAI Platform developed (or co-developed) Principles and Practices for sustainable water management at the farm level; recommendations for Sustainability Performance Assessment (SPA); a standardised methodology for the dairy sector to assess green house gas emissions; an Executives Training on Sustainable Sourcing; and many more.[219] One instance of Nestlé’s impact on sustainable agricultural practices has been documented in academic literature.[220]
  • Creating Shared Value: Creating Shared Value (CSV) is a business concept intended to encourage businesses to create economic and social value simultaneously by focusing on the social issues that they are capable of addressing. In 2006, Nestlé adopted the CSV approach, focusing on three areas – nutrition, water and rural development – as these are core to their business activities.[219] Nestlé now publishes an annual progress report on its goals.[221][222] Nestlé also established the Creating Shared Value Prize, which is awarded every other year with the aim of rewarding the best examples of CSV initiatives worldwide and to encourage other companies to adopt a shared value approach. These initiatives should take a business-oriented approach in addressing challenges in nutrition, water or rural development. The winner can win up to CHF 500,000. Nestlé was an early mover in the shared value space and hosts a global forum, the Creating Shared Value Global Forum.[223][224]
  • Nestlé Cocoa Plan: In October 2009, Nestlé announced “The Cocoa Plan” to get 100 percent of its chocolate portfolio using certified sustainable cocoa. For third-party certification, Nestlé has partnered with UTZ Certified. Many of Nestlé’s efforts are focused on the Ivory Coast, where 40 percent of the world’s cocoa comes from. The company has developed a higher-yielding, more drought- and disease-resistant cocoa tree; and they have given 3 million of these trees to farmers thus far and plan to give away 12 million of them in total. They are also training farmers in efficient and sustainable growing techniques, which focuses on better farming practices, including pruning trees, pest control (with an emphasis on integrated pest management) and harvesting, as well as caring for the environment. In addition, they have built 23 new schools so far and plan to build 40 in total by 2015.[225] Another part of the plan has been to address child labor. Nestlé says that according to US statistics, there are about 800,000 children who work the cocoa supply chain. Nestlé approached the Fair Labor Association to map out strategies to help curb child labor in the cocoa sector, and these efforts – including community education and the building of schools – have become a focus of the Cocoa Plan.[225]
  • Ecolaboration: On 22 June 2009, Nestlé Nespresso and Rainforest Alliance signed a pact called “Ecolaboration”. One of the shared goals is to reduce the environmental impacts and increase the social benefits of coffee cultivation in enough tropical regions so that 80 percent of Nespresso’s coffee comes from Rainforest Alliance Certified farms by 2013. Certified farms comply with comprehensive standards covering all aspects of sustainable farming, including soil and water conservation, protection of wildlife and forests, and ensuring that farm workers, women and children have all the proper rights and benefits, such as good wages, clean drinking water, access to schools, and health care and security.[226]
  • The Nescafé Plan: In 2010, Nestlé launched the Nescafé Plan, an initiative to increase sustainable coffee production and make sustainable coffee farming more accessible to farmers. The plan aims to increase the company’s supply of coffee beans without clearing rainforests, as well as using less water and fewer agrochemicals. According to Nestlé, Nescafé will invest 350 million Swiss francs (about $336 million) over the next ten years to expand the company’s agricultural research and training capacity to help benefit many of the 25 million people who make their living growing and trading coffee. The Rainforest Alliance and the other NGOs in the Sustainable Agriculture Network will support Nestlé in meeting the objectives of the plan.[227]
  • Health care and nutrition product development: In September 2010, Nestlé said that it would invest more than $500 million between 2011 and 2020 to develop health and wellness products to help prevent and treat major ailments like diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s. Nestlé created a wholly owned subsidiary, Nestlé Health Science, as well as a research body, the Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences.[228]
  • Membership in Fair Labour Association: In 2011, Nestlé started to work with the Fair Labor Association (FLA), a non-profit, multi-stakeholder association that works with major companies to improve working conditions in developing countries, to assess labor conditions and compliance risks throughout Nestlé’s supply chain of hazelnuts and cocoa. On 29 February 2012, Nestlé became the first company in the food industry to join the FLA. Building on Nestlé’s efforts under the Cocoa Plan, the FLA will send independent experts to Ivory Coast in 2012 and where evidence of child labour is found, the FLA will identify root causes and advise Nestlé how to address them in sustainable and lasting ways.[229] As a Participating Company, Nestlé has committed to ten Principles of Fair Labor and Responsible Sourcing, and to upholding the FLA Workplace Code of Conduct throughout their supply chains, starting with farms.[230]
  • Rural Development Framework program: In 2012, Nestlé developed the Rural Development Framework, which supports farmers and cocoa growing communities.[231] It is an investment program aimed at improving infrastructure, increasing access to safe water, address financing and market efficiency gaps, and improving labor conditions.[232]
  • Partnership with IFRC: Nestlé has had a long-standing partnership with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) to increase access to safe water and sanitation in rural communities. In recent years, the partnership has brought clean drinking water and sanitation facilities to 100,000 people in Ivory Coast’s cocoa communities. Nestlé committed to contributing five million Swiss francs during 2014–2019 to the IFRC.[233]
  • In 2020 Nestlé Waters joined a consortium to boost PET plastic recyclability.[234]

Recognition and awards


  • La stratégie Nestlé (Nestlé Strategy), Helmut Maucher, French translation by Monique Thiollet, Maxima Ed., Paris, 1995,[247] ISBN 2840010720

See besides


Notes and references

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