Cell Phone Towers

Cell Phone Towers

The far-flung use of cell phones in holocene decades has led to a boastfully increase in the number of cell call towers ( besides known as base stations ) being placed in communities. These towers have electronic equipment and antenna that receive and transmit cell phone signals using radiofrequency ( RF ) waves .
Cell call towers are still relatively raw, and many people are intelligibly concerned about whether the RF waves they give off might possibly have health effects.

At this time, there ’ s no potent evidence that exposure to RF waves from cell earphone towers causes any detectable health effects. however, this does not mean that the RF waves from cell phone towers have been proven to be absolutely safe. Most adept organizations agree that more inquiry is needed to help clarify this, specially for any possible long-run effects .

How do cell phone towers expose people to RF waves?

Cell telephone base stations can be free-standing towers or mounted on existing structures, such as trees, water tanks, or improbable buildings. The antennas need to be high adequate to adequately cover a certain area. Base stations are normally from 50 to 200 feet high .
Cell phones communicate with nearby cell towers chiefly through RF waves, a form of energy in the electromagnetic spectrum between FM radio waves and microwaves. Like FM radio waves, microwaves, visible light, and heat, they are forms of non-ionizing radiation. This means they do not directly damage the DNA inside cells, which is how stronger ( ionizing ) types of radiation such as x-rays, da gamma rays, and ultraviolet ( UV ) rays are thought to be able to cause cancer .

image credit : National Cancer Institute
The electromagnetic spectrum illustration above shows the possible frequencies of electromagnetic energy, ranging from extremely low frequencies ( such as those from power lines ) to extremely high frequencies ( such as x-rays and gamma rays ), and includes both non-ionizing and ionize radiotherapy .
At very high levels, RF waves can heat up body tissues. But the levels of energy used by cell phones and towers are much lower .
When a person makes a cell phone visit, a bespeak is sent from the earphone ’ second antenna to the nearest base place antenna. The base post responds to this signal by assigning it an available RF impart. RF waves transfer the part information to the base station. The voice signals are then sent to a switch focus on, which transfers the call to its address. voice signals are then relayed back and forth during the call .
When RF signals are transmitted back and forth to the nucleotide place during calls, the RF waves produced at the basis station are given off into the environment, where people can be exposed to them .

On the ground near a cell phone tower

RF waves from a cell phone tugboat antenna, like those from other telecommunication antennas, are directed toward the horizon ( latitude to the earth ), with some down break up. Base station antennas use higher office levels than other types of land-mobile antennas, but much lower levels than those from radio and television broadcast stations. The come of energy from RF waves decreases quickly as the distance from the antenna increases. As a solution, the charge of exposure to RF waves at ground tied is much lower than the level near to the antenna .
At grind floor near distinctive cellular base stations, the amount of energy from RF waves is hundreds to thousands of times less than the limits for condom vulnerability set by the US Federal Communication Commission ( FCC ) and other regulative authorities. It is very improbable that a person could be exposed to RF levels in surfeit of these limits precisely by being near a cell earphone tugboat .

On a roof with a cellular antenna

When a cellular antenna is mounted on a roof, it is potential that a person on the roof could be exposed to RF levels greater than those typically encountered on the ground. But even then, exposure levels approaching or exceeding the FCC condom guidelines are merely likely to be found identical close to and directly in front of the antenna. If this is the case, access to these areas should be limited .

Indoors with a base station mounted on the outside of the building

The level of energy from RF waves inside buildings where a base station is mounted is typically much lower than the level outside, depending on the construction materials of the build. Antennas are pointed away from the side of the build, and the energy degree behind the antenna is hundreds to thousands of times lower than in front. On crown of this, wood or cement block reduces the exposure to energy from RF waves by a factor of about 10. consequently, if an antenna is mounted on the side of a build up, the photograph degree in the board directly behind the wall is typically well below the recommend exposure limits .

Near a 5G base station

Newer, smaller versions of base stations ( often referred to as small cells ), which are function of one-fifth generation ( 5G ) cellular networks, are discussed below .

Do cell phone towers cause cancer?

Some people have expressed concern that living, working, or going to school near a cell phone tower might increase the gamble of cancer or other health problems. At this time, there is n’t a fortune of evidence to support this mind. still, more research is needed to be sure .

What expert agencies say

The American Cancer Society (ACS) does not have any official position or statement on whether or not radiofrequency (RF) radiation from cell phones, cell phone towers, or other sources is a cause of cancer. ACS by and large looks to other expert organizations to determine if something causes cancer ( that is, if it is a carcinogen ), including :

  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO)
  • The US National Toxicology Program (NTP), which is formed from parts of several different government agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

other major organizations might besides comment on the ability of certain exposures to cause cancer.

What they say about cell phone towers

therefore far, neither IARC nor the NTP have classified the cancer-causing potential of RF waves from cell earphone towers specifically. however, some early agencies have commented on cell loom condom .
The US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has said this approximately cell call towers near homes or schools :
“ [ R ] adiofrequency emissions from antennas used for cellular and PCS [ personal communications avail ] transmissions result in exposure levels on the ground that are typically thousands of times below condom limits. These condom limits were adopted by the FCC based on the recommendations of expert organizations and endorsed by agencies of the Federal Government responsible for health and safety. consequently, there is no rationality to believe that such towers could constitute a potential health hazard to nearby residents or students. ”

What they say about RF radiation in general

Based on a recapitulation of studies published astir until 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified RF radiation as “ possibly carcinogenic to humans, ” based on express attest of a possible increase in risk for brain tumors among cell earphone users, and inadequate testify for other types of cancer. ( For more information on the IARC classification system, see Known and Probable Human Carcinogens. )
More recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a technical report based on results of studies published between 2008 and 2018, angstrom well as home trends in cancer rates. The reputation concluded : “ Based on the studies that are described in detail in this report, there is insufficient tell to support a causal association between radiofrequency radiation sickness ( RFR ) exposure and [ tumor formation ]. ”
so far, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not included RF radiation sickness in its Report on Carcinogens, which lists exposures that are known to be or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens .

What studies have shown

Researchers generally use two types of studies when trying to determine if something might cause cancer :

  • Studies looking at groups of people
  • Studies done in the lab (using lab animals or cell cultures)

The following is a brief compendious of the major studies that have looked at this issue to date. however, this is not a comprehensive recapitulation of all studies that have been done .

Studies in people living near cell phone towers

indeed far, not many studies in people have focused specifically on cellular telephone towers and cancer risk, and the results of these studies have not provided clear answers .

  • A large British study comparing families of young children with cancer with families of children without cancer found no link between a mother’s exposure to the towers during pregnancy (based on the distance from the home to the nearest tower and on the amount of energy from RF waves given off by nearby towers) and the risk of early childhood cancer.
  • Researchers in Taiwan compared children with cancer to a group of similar children without cancer. They found slightly higher overall risk of cancer in those who lived in towns that had an estimated RF exposure from cell phone towers that was above the midpoint level in the study. However, this finding was less apparent when RF exposure was categorized in other ways.

Both of these studies relied on estimates of RF exposure. Neither of them measured the actual exposure of people to RF waves from nearby cellular telephone call towers. This restriction makes it harder to know what the results of these studies might mean .

Studies looking at cell phone use

The measure of exposure from living near a cellular telephone telephone column typically is many times lower than the exposure from using a cell earphone. several twelve studies have looked at possible links between cell phone use and tumors in people. Most studies to date have not found a yoke between cell telephone use and cancer, although these studies have had some crucial limitations. This is an sphere of active research. For more information, see cellular ( Cell ) Phones .

Lab studies on RF waves

RF waves given off by cell phone towers don ’ t have adequate energy to damage DNA directly or to heat body tissues. Because of this, it ’ s not net how cell call towers might be able to cause cancer. Some studies have found potential increase rates of sealed types of tumors in lab animals exposed to RF radiation, but overall, the results of these types of studies have not provided clear up answers so far .
large studies published in 2018 by the US National Toxicology Program ( NTP ) and by the Ramazzini Institute in Italy exposed groups of lab rats ( arsenic well as mice, in the case of the NTP study ) to RF waves over their stallion bodies for many hours a day, starting before birth and continuing for most or all of their natural lives. Both studies found an increased risk of rare heart tumors called malignant schwannomas in male rats, but not in female rats ( nor in male or female mouse, in the NTP study ). The NTP study besides reported possible increase risks of certain types of tumors in the brain and in the adrenal glands .
While both of these studies had strengths, they besides had limitations that make it hard to know how they might apply to humans being exposed to RF waves from cell phone towers. A 2019 review of these two studies by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection ( ICNIRP ) determined that the limitations of the studies didn ’ thyroxine let conclusions to be drawn regarding the ability of RF energy to cause cancer .
hush, the results of these studies do not rule out the possibility that the RF waves used in cell telephone communication might somehow impact human health .

What about 5G networks?

Fifth generation ( 5G ) cellular networks are now being rolled out in many parts of the United States and in early countries. 5G networks are able of transmitting much larger amounts of data over shorter periods of prison term than previous generations ( 4G, 3G, etc. ) .
Earlier coevals networks have used RF wavelengths below 6 gigahertz ( GHz ). 5G networks will use some wavelengths in this range, but will besides use some higher frequency wavelengths, at the lower end of the millimeter wave spectrum ( which ranges from 30 GHz to 300 GHz ). While these RF waves are higher frequency ( higher department of energy ) than those used by older generations, they are still forms of non-ionizing radiation, so they even lack the ability to immediately damage DNA .
The higher frequency waves used by 5G travel shorter distances and don ’ deoxythymidine monophosphate go through objects ( such as buildings, or even tree leaves ) arsenic well as lower frequency waves. Because of this, 5G networks require many more, smaller versions of base stations ( much referred to as small cells ) in some places, specially in dumbly populated areas. These small cells can be mounted on streetlights, utility poles, buildings, and other structures. This could result in the antenna being closer to people, although minor cells typically operate at a lot lower power levels than the larger ( macro ) free-base stations.

The addition of the higher wavelengths from 5G networks could besides expose people to more RF waves overall .
At the same time, these higher frequency RF waves are less able to penetrate the body than lower frequency waves, so in theory they might be less probably to have any potential health effects. But so army for the liberation of rwanda this offspring has not been well studied .
At this fourth dimension, there has been very fiddling research showing that the RF waves used in 5G networks are any more ( or less ) of a business than the other RF wavelengths used in cellular communication .